David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
The Evolution List (2009)
Arguments by analogy are common in science, and in pseudoscience as well (especially "intelligent design theory"). A hierarchy of reasoning modes is presented, in which increasing confidence in the validity of inferences arises out of increasing lines of related evidence. The validity of all forms of argument are shown to be limited by the same thing: the logical limitations of argument by analogy. Therefore, there is (and can be) no ultimate certainty in any description or analysis of nature insofar as such descriptions or analyses are based on transduction, induction, deduction, abduction, and/or consilience (TIDAC). Generalizations formulated via simple analogy (transduction) are the weakest and generalizations formulated via consilience are the strongest. All we have (and can ever have) is relative degrees of confidence, based on repeated observations of similar objects and processes.
|Keywords||abductive reasoning argument by analogy consilience deductive reasoning inductive reasoning nominalism transductive reasoning|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
No citations found.
Similar books and articles
Paul F. A. Bartha (2010). By Parallel Reasoning: The Construction and Evaluation of Analogical Arguments. Oxford University Press.
Brian Lightbody & Berman Michael (2010). The Metaphoric Fallacy to a Deductive Inference. Informal Logic: Reasoning and Argumentation in Theory and Practice 30 (2):185-193.
Graeme S. Halford & Glenda Andrews (2004). The Development of Deductive Reasoning: How Important is Complexity? Thinking and Reasoning 10 (2):123 – 145.
George Polya (1990). Mathematics and Plausible Reasoning. Princeton University Press.
Henricus A. M. Snelders (1994). Analogieschlüsse in der chemischen Vergangenheit: Irrwege und Wegweiser. NTM International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine 2 (1):65-75.
Tomis Kapitan (1992). Peirce and the Autonomy of Abductive Reasoning. Erkenntnis 37 (1):1 - 26.
R. A. Fumerton (1980). Induction and Reasoning to the Best Explanation. Philosophy of Science 47 (4):589-600.
Michael J. Wreen (2007). A Second Form of Argument From Analogy. Theoria 73 (3):221-239.
André Juthe (2005). Argument by Analogy. Argumentation 19 (1):1-27.
Added to index2009-02-08
Total downloads8 ( #368,535 of 1,789,998 )
Recent downloads (6 months)1 ( #424,764 of 1,789,998 )
How can I increase my downloads?