Function and functionalism: A synthetic perspective

Philosophy of Science 68 (1):75-94 (2001)
Abstract
In this paper we examine the following problems: How many concepts of function are there in biology, social science, and technology? Are they logically related and if so, how? Which of these function concepts effect a functional explanation as opposed to a mere functional account? What are the consequences of a pluralist view of functions for functionalism? We submit that there are five concepts of function in biology, which are logically related in a particular way, and six function concepts in social science and technology. Only two of them may help effect a genuine functional explanation. Finally, our synthetic approach allows us to distinguish four different varieties of functionalism in biology, psychology, social science, and technology: formalist, black boxist, adaptationist, and teleological. And only one of them is explanatory in the strong sense defended here
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    Marcin Miłkowski (2009). Is Evolution Algorithmic? Minds and Machines 19 (4):465-475.
    Tuukka Kaidesoja (2009). Bhaskar and Bunge on Social Emergence. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 39 (3):300-322.
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