Japanese reported speech: against a direct--indirect distinction

In Hattori et al (ed.), New Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence. Springer 133--145 (2009)
English direct discourse is easily recognized by e.g. the lack of a complementizer, the quotation marks (or the intonational contour they induce), and verbatim (`shifted') pronouns. Japanese employs the same complementizer for all reports, does not have a consistent intonational quotation marking, and tends to drop pronouns where possible. Some have argued that this just shows many Japanese reports are ambiguous: despite the lack of explicit marking, the underlying distinction is just as hard. On the basis of a number of `mixed' examples, I claim that the line between direct and indirect is blurred and I propose a unified analysis of speech reporting in which a general mechanism of mixed quotation replaces the classical two-fold distinction.
Keywords Japanese   direct/indirect discourse   quotation
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ISBN(s) 978-3-642-00608-1  
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