David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Journal of Semantics 26 (3):253-315 (2009)
I provide a novel semantic analysis of proper names and indexicals, combining insights from the competing traditions of referentialism, championed by Kripke and Kaplan, and descriptivism, introduced by Frege and Russell, and more recently resurrected by Geurts and Elbourne, among others. From the referentialist tradition, I borrow the proof that names and indexicals are not synonymous to any definite description but pick their referent from the context directly. From the descriptivist tradition, I take the observation that names, and to some extent indexicals, have uses that are best understood by analogy with anaphora and definite descriptions, that is, following Geurts, in terms of presupposition projection. The hybrid analysis that I propose is couched in Layered Discourse Representation Theory. Proper names and indexicals trigger presuppositions in a dedicated layer, which is semantically interpreted as providing a contextual anchor for the interpretation of the other layers. For the proper resolution of DRSs with layered presuppositions, I add two constraints to van der Sandt's algorithm. The resulting proposal accounts for both the classic philosophical examples and the new linguistic data, preserving a unified account of the preferred rigid interpretation of both names and indexicals, while leaving room for non-referential readings under contextual pressure.
|Keywords||direct reference proper names indexicals presupposition Layered DRT|
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References found in this work BETA
R. Blutner (2000). Some Aspects of Optimality in Natural Language Interpretation. Journal of Semantics 17 (3):189-216.
B. Geurts (1997). Good News About the Description Theory of Names. Journal of Semantics 14 (4):319-348.
Rob A. van Der Sandt (1992). Presupposition Projection as Anaphora Resolution. Journal of Semantics 9 (4):333-377.
H. Zeevat (1999). Demonstratives in Discourse. Journal of Semantics 16 (4):279-313.
H. Zeevat (2000). The Asymmetry of Optimality Theoretic Syntax and Semantics. Journal of Semantics 17 (3):243-262.
Citations of this work BETA
Michael McKinsey (2010). Understanding Proper Names. Linguistics and Philosophy 33 (4):325-354.
Emar Maier (2009). Presupposing Acquaintance: A Unified Semantics for de Dicto, de Re and de Se Belief Reports. Linguistics and Philosophy 32 (5):429--474.
Aidan Gray (2014). Name-Bearing, Reference, and Circularity. Philosophical Studies 171 (2):207-231.
Julie Hunter (2014). Structured Contexts and Anaphoric Dependencies. Philosophical Studies 168 (1):35-58.
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Emar Maier (2007). Proper Names as Rigid Presuppositions. In Estella Puig-Waldmüller (ed.), Proceedings of Sinn Und Bedeutung 11. 418-32.
John Perry (1997). Reflexivity, Indexicality and Names. In W. Künne, A. Newen & M. Anduschus (eds.), Direct Reference, Indexicality and Propositional Attitudes. Csli. 3--19.
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