David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Sophia 48 (3):299-317 (2009)
This essay critically evaluates the theodicies of John Hick, Richard Swinburne and process theism regarding animal suffering and evils. Their positions on animals are found to be flawed and/or inadequate because they cannot explain the mass suffering and unnecessary deaths to animals throughout time. I also offer a positive contribution. That is, God’s putative love for all humans and animals does not entail that he loves every single human and animal. It is very possible that God treats humans and animals similarly in regard to evils. This theory partly explains human tragedies such as the Holocaust and much unnecessary animal and human suffering.
|Keywords||Theodicy Animals Evil Suffering Divine love|
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References found in this work BETA
Marc Hauser (2006). Moral Minds: How Nature Designed Our Universal Sense of Right and Wrong. Harper Collins.
Richard Swinburne (1998). Providence and the Problem of Evil. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
John Hick (1966). Evil and the God of Love. Macmillan.
Nick Trakakis (2008). Theodicy: The Solution to the Problem of Evil, or Part of the Problem? Sophia 47 (2):161-191.
Donald R. Griffin & G. B. Speck (2004). New Evidence of Animal Consciousness. Animal Cognition 7 (1):5-18.
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