David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Australasian Journal of Philosophy 10 (4):243 – 258 (1932)
There are two opposed theories which attempt to account for the processes of problem solution involved in learning and intelligence. The former is neural in its basis and postulates the existence of a bare connection as a bonding or linkage of two experiences. The second theory, that of gestalt, implies that learning or apprehension involves a relationship of the parts of the experience to each other as well as to the whole. While these psychological schools are exclusive of and opposed to each other, yet they are merely extremes of what actually exists. There is a minimum level of learning in which associationism is operative and a maximum intellectual level at which explicit relationships predominate. An examination of experimental results will show this to be the case. The results of conditioned reflex experiments in both animals and man appear to show that there is present nothing beyond arbitrary linkage or bonding between the parts of the situation involved. On the other hand, one finds a certain degree of implicit meaning involved in perceptual situations—the level of animal achievement—as well as a certain measure of transfer of meaning. Explicit meanings may be related by means of word symbols involving the principle of the concept through the medium of speech, and this is only arrived at by human beings. We may regard these higher levels as “emergents” from the level of bonding or linkage.
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
No citations found.
Similar books and articles
Mareike B. Wieth & Rose T. Zacks (2011). Time of Day Effects on Problem Solving: When the Non-Optimal is Optimal. Thinking and Reasoning 17 (4):387 - 401.
John Levi Martin (2001). On the Limits of Sociological Theory. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 31 (2):187-223.
Stan A. Kuczaj, John D. Gory & Mark J. Xitco (1998). Using Programs to Solve Problems: Imitation Versus Insight. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (5):695-696.
Niels A. Taatgen (1999). Implicit Versus Explicit: An ACT-R Learning Perspective. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):785-786.
John Kekes (1966). Physicalism, the Identity Theory, and the Concept of Emergence. Philosophy of Science 33 (December):360-75.
Aldo Zanga & Jean-Fran (2004). Implicit Learning in Rule Induction and Problem Solving. Thinking and Reasoning 10 (1):55 – 83.
Magda Osman (2008). Observation Can Be as Effective as Action in Problem Solving. Cognitive Science 32 (1):162-183.
Ron Sun, Incubation, Insight, and Creative Problem Solving: A Unified Theory and a Connectionist Model.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads3 ( #294,374 of 1,101,681 )
Recent downloads (6 months)0
How can I increase my downloads?