Using self-view television to distinguish between self-examination and social behavior in the bottlenose Dolphin
David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Consciousness and Cognition 4 (2):205-24 (1992)
In mirror mark tests dolphins twist, posture, and engage in open-mouth and head movements, often repetitive. Because postures and an open mouth are also dolphin social behaviours, we used self-view television as a manipulatable mirror to distinguish between self-examination and social behavior. Two dolphins were exposed to alternating real-time self-view and playback of the same to determine if they distinguished between them. The adult male engaged in elaborate open-mouth behaviors in mirror mode, but usually just watched when playing back the same material. Mirror mode behavior was also compared to interacting with real dolphins . Mark tests were conducted, as well as switches from front to side self-views to see if the dolphins turned. They presented marked areas to self-views to see if the dolphins turned. They presented marked areas to the self-view television and turned. The results suggest self-examination over social behavior
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Diana Reiss, Brenda McCowan & Lori Marino (1997). Communicative and Other Cognitive Characteristics of Bottlenose Dolphins. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 1 (4):140-145.
Louis M. Herman (2012). Body and Self in Dolphins. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):526-545.
Thomas I. White (2013). Humans and Dolphins: An Exploration of Anthropocentrism in Applied Environmental Ethics. Journal of Animal Ethics 3 (1):85-99.
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