Two ways of thinking about fitness and natural selection

Journal of Philosophy 99 (2):55-83 (2002)
Abstract
How do fitness and natural selection relate to other evolutionary factors like architectural constraint, mode of reproduction, and drift? In one way of thinking, drawn from Newtonian dynamics, fitness is one force driving evolutionary change and added to other factors. In another, drawn from statistical thermodynamics, it is a statistical trend that manifests itself in natural selection histories. It is argued that the first model is incoherent, the second appropriate; a hierarchical realization model is proposed as a basis for a statistical treatment. It emerges that natural selection does not cause evolution; it just is evolution. The theory incorporates relations of statistical correlation, but not the kind of causation found in fundamental physical processes.
Keywords natural selection  force model of evolution  statistical interpretation of natural selection
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    Arnon Levy (2013). Three Kinds of New Mechanism. Biology and Philosophy 28 (1):99-114.
    Tim Lewens (2010). The Natures of Selection. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 61 (2):313-333.

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