Psycho-practice, psycho-theory and the contrastive case of autism: How practices of mind become second-nature
David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (5-7):109-132 (2001)
In philosophy, the last thirty years or so has seen a split between 'simulation theorists' and 'theory-theorists', with a number of variations on each side. In general, simulation theorists favour the idea that our knowledge of others is based on using ourselves as a working model of what complex psychological creatures are like. Theory-theorists claim that our knowledge of complex psychological creatures, including ourselves, is theoretical in character and so more like our knowledge of the world in general. The body of this paper is divided into three parts. In Part I, I introduce the 'contrastive case' of autism. Autism is a developmental disorder that has recently become the focus of sustained philosophical and psychological attention because of the selective way in which it affects individuals' social capacities. Theory-theorists argue that autistic children's unique profile of assets and deficits is most fruitfully explained by their inability to develop and deploy a theory of mind. After considering the strengths of this hypothesis, I claim theory-theorists face two unresolved difficulties: explaining why high-functioning autistics who develop some theory of mind capacities still fail to engage in normal psychological knowing; and explaining why autistics are generally as unknowable to us in the privileged sense of normal psychological knowing as we are to them. In Part II, I provide the theoretical framework for addressing these challenges by developing an account of normal psychological knowing as psycho-practical expertise. In Part III, I return to the problem of autism, showing how this psycho-practical approach to normal psychological knowing may further suggest how to encompass various aspects of the disorder that tend to be ignored under the prevailing theory-theory approach
|Keywords||Autism History Mind Psychotherapy Science|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
Manuela Ungureanu (2004). Reading the Minds of Others: Radical Interpretation and the Empirical Study of Childhood Cognitive Development. Dialogue 43 (3):527-554.
Nini Praetorius (2009). The Phenomenological Underpinning of the Notion of a Minimal Core Self: A Psychological Perspective. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (1):325-338.
Similar books and articles
Laurence R. Simon (1994). Psycho"Therapy": Theory, Practice, Modern, and Postmodern Influences. Praeger.
Shaun Gallagher (2004). Understanding Interpersonal Problems in Autism: Interaction Theory as an Alternative to Theory of Mind. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 11 (3):199-217.
Somogy Varga (2011). Pretence, Social Cognition and Self-Knowledge in Autism. Psychopathology 44 (1):45-52..
Barbara Russell (2012). Reflections on 'Autistic Integrity'. Bioethics 26 (3):164-170.
Erin A. Heerey, Dacher Keltner & Lisa M. Capps (2003). Making Sense of Self-Conscious Emotion: Linking Theory of Mind and Emotion in Children with Autism. Emotion 3 (4):394-400.
Somogy Varga (2010). Explaining Impaired Play in Autism. Journal für Philosophie Und Psychiatrie 3 (1):1-13.
Robert M. Gordon & John A. Barker (1994). Autism and the "Theory of Mind" Debate. In George Graham & G. Lynn Stephens (eds.), Philosophical Psychopathology. MIT Press.
Marcus P. Adams (2011). Modularity, Theory of Mind, and Autism Spectrum Disorder. Philosophy of Science 78 (5):763-773.
Anne E. McGuire & Rod Michalko (2011). Minds Between Us: Autism, Mindblindness and the Uncertainty of Communication. Educational Philosophy and Theory 43 (2):162-177.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads77 ( #22,923 of 1,692,573 )
Recent downloads (6 months)3 ( #75,608 of 1,692,573 )
How can I increase my downloads?