“Omnis determinatio est negatio” – Determination, Negation and Self-Negation in Spinoza, Kant, and Hegel
David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
In Eckart Forster & Yitzhak Y. Melamed (eds.), Spinoza and German Idealism. Cambridge University Press (2012)
Spinoza’s letter of June 2, 1674 to his friend Jarig Jelles addresses several distinct and important issues in Spinoza’s philosophy. It explains briefly the core of Spinoza’s disagreement with Hobbes’ political theory, develops his innovative understanding of numbers, and elaborates on Spinoza’s refusal to describe God as one or single. Then, toward the end of the letter, Spinoza writes: With regard to the statement that figure is a negation and not anything positive, it is obvious that matter in its totality, considered without limitation [indefinitè consideratam], can have no figure, and that figure applies only to finite and determinate bodies. For he who says that he apprehends a figure, thereby means to indicate simply this, that he apprehends a determinate thing and the manner of its determination. This determination therefore does not pertain to the thing in regard to its being [esse]; on the contrary, it is its non-being [non-esse]. So since figure is nothing but determination, and determination is negation [Quia ergo figura non aliud, quam determinatio, et determinatio negatio est], figure can be nothing other than negation, as has been said. Arguably, what is most notable about this letter is the fate of a single subordinate clause which appears in the last sentence of this passage: et determinatio negatio est. That clause was to be adopted by Hegel and transformed into the slogan of his own dialectical method: Omnis determinatio est negatio (Every determination is negation). Of further significance is the fact that, while Hegel does credit Spinoza with the discovery of this most fundamental insight, he believes Spinoza failed to appreciate the importance of his discovery. The issue of negation and the possibility of self-negation stand at the very center of the philosophical dialogue between the systems of Spinoza and Hegel, and in this paper I will attempt to provide a preliminary explication of this foundational debate between the two systems. In the first part of the paper I will argue that the “determination is negation” formula has been understood in at least three distinct senses among the German Idealists, and as a result many of the participants in the discussion of this formula were actually talking past each other. The clarification of the three distinct senses of the formula will lead, in the second part of the paper, to a more precise evaluation of the fundamental debate between Spinoza and Hegel (and the German Idealists in general) regarding the possibility (or even necessity) of self-negation. In this part I will evaluate the validity of each interpretation of the determination formula, and motivate the positions of the various participants in the debate.
|Keywords||Negation Determination Spinoza Kant Hegel Maimon Jacobi Logic German Idealism Law of Non-Contradiction|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
No citations found.
Similar books and articles
Eckart Förster & Yitzhak Y. Melamed (eds.) (2012). Spinoza and German Idealism. Cambridge University Press.
Yitzhak Y. Melamed (2010). Acosmism or Weak Individuals?: Hegel, Spinoza, and the Reality of the Finite. Journal of the History of Philosophy 48 (1):pp. 77-92.
Simon B. Duffy (2006). The Differential Point of View of the Infinitesimal Calculus in Spinoza, Leibniz and Deleuze. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 37 (3):286-307.
Simon B. Duffy (2004). The Logic of Expression in Deleuze's Expressionism in Philosophy: Spinoza: A Strategy of Engagement. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 12 (1):47 – 60.
Heidi M. Ravven (2003). Hegel's Epistemic Turn—Or Spinoza's? Idealistic Studies 33 (2/3):195-202.
Ashley Woodward (2013). Deleuze, Nietzsche, and the Overcoming of Nihilism. Continental Philosophy Review 46 (1):115-147.
Paolo Diego Bubbio (2009). Solger and Hegel: Negation and Privation. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 17 (2):173-187.
Simon B. Duffy (2006). The Logic of Expression: Quality, Quantity and Intensity in Spinoza, Hegel and Deleuze. Ashgate.
Yitzhak Y. Melamed (2004). Salomon Maimon and the Rise of Spinozism in German Idealism. Journal of the History of Philosophy 42 (1):67-96.
Ali Benmakhlouf (2001). G. Frege sur la négation comme opposition sans force. Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 2 (2):7-19.
Michael De (2013). Empirical Negation. Acta Analytica 28 (1):49-69.
Robert R. Williams (2010). Hegel's True Infinity As Panentheism. The Owl of Minerva 42 (1-2):137-152.
David Ripley (2011). Negation, Denial, and Rejection. Philosophy Compass 6 (9):622-629.
Marx W. Wartofsky (1977). Nature, Number and Individuals: Motive and Method in Spinoza's Philosophy. Inquiry 20 (1-4):457 – 479.
Added to index2011-10-04
Total downloads247 ( #2,576 of 1,692,471 )
Recent downloads (6 months)26 ( #7,108 of 1,692,471 )
How can I increase my downloads?