David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (1):161-177 (2013)
Emerging technologies are increasingly used in an attempt to “enhance the human body and/or mind” beyond the contemporary standards that characterize human beings. Yet, such standards are deeply controversial and it is not an easy task to determine whether the application of a given technology to an individual and its outcome can be defined as a human enhancement or not. Despite much debate on its potential or actual ethical and social impacts, human enhancement is not subject to any consensual definition. This paper proposes a timely and much needed examination of the various definitions found in the literature. We classify these definitions into four main categories: the implicit approach, the therapy-enhancement distinction, the improvement of general human capacities and the increase of well-being. After commenting on these different approaches and their limitations, we propose a definition of human enhancement that focuses on individual perceptions. While acknowledging that a definition that mainly depends on personal and subjective individual perceptions raises many challenges, we suggest that a comprehensive approach to define human enhancement could constitute a useful premise to appropriately address the complexity of the ethical and social issues it generates
|Keywords||Biomedical enhancement Enhancement technologies Genetic engineering Ethical issues|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
John Harris (2007). Enhancing Evolution: The Ethical Case for Making Better People. Princeton University Press.
Alfred Nordmann (2007). If and Then: A Critique of Speculative Nanoethics. [REVIEW] NanoEthics 1 (1):31-46.
Michael Sandel (2004). The Case Against Perfection. The Atlantic (April):1–11.
Norman Daniels (2000). Normal Functioning and the Treatment-Enhancement Distinction. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 9 (3):309--322.
Anita Ho (2008). The Individualist Model of Autonomy and the Challenge of Disability. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 5 (2/3):193-207.
Citations of this work BETA
Joseph Lee (2016). Cochlear Implantation, Enhancements, Transhumanism and Posthumanism: Some Human Questions. Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (1):67-92.
Similar books and articles
Matthew DeCamp & Allen Buchanan (2007). Pt. VI. Genetics and Enhancement. Population Genetic Research and Screening: Conceptual and Ethical Issues / Eric Juengst ; Enhancement / Thomas Murray ; Genetic Interventions and the Ethics of Enhancement of Human Beings / Julian Savulescu ; Pharmacogenomics: Ethical and Regulatory Issues. [REVIEW] In Bonnie Steinbock (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Bioethics. Oxford University Press
William Gardner (1995). Can Human Genetic Enhancement Be Prohibited? Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 20 (1):65-84.
Allen E. Buchanan (2011). Beyond Humanity?: The Ethics of Biomedical Enhancement. Oxford University Press.
Russell Powell (2012). Human Nature and Respect for the Evolutionarily Given: A Comment on Lewens. Philosophy and Technology 25 (4):485-493.
Richard Twine (2007). Thinking Across Species—a Critical Bioethics Approach to Enhancement. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 28 (6):509-523.
Arianna Ferrari, Christopher Coenen & Armin Grunwald (2012). Visions and Ethics in Current Discourse on Human Enhancement. NanoEthics 6 (3):215-229.
John Basl (2010). State Neutrality and the Ethics of Human Enhancement Technologies. AJOB 1 (2):41-48.
Thomas Douglas (2008). Moral Enhancement. Journal of Applied Philosophy 25 (3):228-245.
Michael Fuchs (2010). Reshaping Human Intelligence: The Debate About Genetic Enhancement of Cognitive Functions. Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 16 (2):165-181.
John Harris (2011). Moral Enhancement and Freedom. Bioethics 25 (2):102-111.
Nick Bostrom & Rebecca Roache (2007). Human Enhancement : Ethical Issues in Human Enhancement. In Jesper Ryberg, Thomas S. Petersen & Clark Wolf (eds.), New Waves in Applied Ethics. Palgrave Macmillan
Maxwell J. Mehlman (2005). Genetic Enhancement: Plan Now to Act Later. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 15 (1):77-82.
Nick Bostrom (2009). Cognitive Enhancement: Methods, Ethics, Regulatory Challenges. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (3):311-341.
Added to index2011-07-23
Total downloads50 ( #95,388 of 1,940,983 )
Recent downloads (6 months)7 ( #133,083 of 1,940,983 )
How can I increase my downloads?