David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (1):161-177 (2013)
Emerging technologies are increasingly used in an attempt to “enhance the human body and/or mind” beyond the contemporary standards that characterize human beings. Yet, such standards are deeply controversial and it is not an easy task to determine whether the application of a given technology to an individual and its outcome can be defined as a human enhancement or not. Despite much debate on its potential or actual ethical and social impacts, human enhancement is not subject to any consensual definition. This paper proposes a timely and much needed examination of the various definitions found in the literature. We classify these definitions into four main categories: the implicit approach, the therapy-enhancement distinction, the improvement of general human capacities and the increase of well-being. After commenting on these different approaches and their limitations, we propose a definition of human enhancement that focuses on individual perceptions. While acknowledging that a definition that mainly depends on personal and subjective individual perceptions raises many challenges, we suggest that a comprehensive approach to define human enhancement could constitute a useful premise to appropriately address the complexity of the ethical and social issues it generates
|Keywords||Biomedical enhancement Enhancement technologies Genetic engineering Ethical issues|
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References found in this work BETA
John Harris (2007). Enhancing Evolution: The Ethical Case for Making Better People. Princeton University Press.
Alfred Nordmann (2007). If and Then: A Critique of Speculative Nanoethics. [REVIEW] NanoEthics 1 (1):31-46.
Norman Daniels (2000). Normal Functioning and the Treatment-Enhancement Distinction. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 9 (3):309--322.
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Citations of this work BETA
Joseph Lee (2016). Cochlear Implantation, Enhancements, Transhumanism and Posthumanism: Some Human Questions. Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (1):67-92.
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