David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Consciousness and Cognition 3 (1):46-60 (1994)
We have investigated the emotional profile of dreams and the relationship between dream emotion and cognition using a form that specifically asked subjects to identify emotions within their dreams. Two hundred dream reports were collected from 20 subjects, each of whom produced 10 reports. Compared to previous studies, our method yielded a 10-fold increase in the amount of emotion reported. Anxiety/fear was reported most frequently, followed, in order, by joy/elation, anger, sadness, shame/guilt, and, least frequently, affection/eroticism. Unexpectedly, there was no significant difference in the profiles of emotion reported by men and women. When the reports were scored for bizarreness, a significant correlation was found between the occurrence of bizarreness and major shifts in emotion. These results support the conclusion that dreaming is a mental state whose general emotional features are widely shared across individuals and strongly linked to cognitive features within individual dreams.
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Sophie Schwartz & Pierre Maquet (2002). Sleep Imaging and the Neuro-Psychological Assessment of Dreams. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (1):23-30.
Delphine Oudiette, Marie-José Dealberto, Ginevra Uguccioni, Jean-Louis Golmard, Milagros Merino-Andreu, Mehdi Tafti, Lucile Garma, Sophie Schwartz & Isabelle Arnulf (2012). Dreaming Without REM Sleep. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1129-1140.
Jennifer M. Windt (2010). The Immersive Spatiotemporal Hallucination Model of Dreaming. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 9 (2):295-316.
T. Nielsen (2007). Felt Presence: Paranoid Delusion or Hallucinatory Social Imagery?☆. Consciousness and Cognition 16 (4):975-983.
Tracey L. Kahan & Stephen P. LaBerge (2011). Dreaming and Waking: Similarities and Differences Revisited. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):494-514.
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