David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Consciousness and Cognition 3 (1):46-60 (1994)
We have investigated the emotional profile of dreams and the relationship between dream emotion and cognition using a form that specifically asked subjects to identify emotions within their dreams. Two hundred dream reports were collected from 20 subjects, each of whom produced 10 reports. Compared to previous studies, our method yielded a 10-fold increase in the amount of emotion reported. Anxiety/fear was reported most frequently, followed, in order, by joy/elation, anger, sadness, shame/guilt, and, least frequently, affection/eroticism. Unexpectedly, there was no significant difference in the profiles of emotion reported by men and women. When the reports were scored for bizarreness, a significant correlation was found between the occurrence of bizarreness and major shifts in emotion. These results support the conclusion that dreaming is a mental state whose general emotional features are widely shared across individuals and strongly linked to cognitive features within individual dreams
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Tracey L. Kahan & Stephen P. LaBerge (2011). Dreaming and Waking: Similarities and Differences Revisited. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):494-514.
Delphine Oudiette, Marie-José Dealberto, Ginevra Uguccioni, Jean-Louis Golmard, Milagros Merino-Andreu, Mehdi Tafti, Lucile Garma, Sophie Schwartz & Isabelle Arnulf (2012). Dreaming Without REM Sleep. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1129-1140.
J. T. Rowley, R. Stickgold & J. Allan Hobson (1998). Eyelid Movements and Mental Activity at Sleep Onset. Consciousness and Cognition 7 (1):67-84.
Katja Valli, Thea Strandholm, Lauri Sillanmäki & Antti Revonsuo (2008). Dreams Are More Negative Than Real Life: Implications for the Function of Dreaming. Cognition and Emotion 22 (5):833-861.
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