Graduate studies at Western
|Abstract||The idea that cognitive processes can be meaningfully classified as conscious or unconscious has a long history in philosophy and psychology (see Ellenberger 1970: Erdelyi 1985; Perry and Laurence 1984, for reviews). However, even though many experimental reports during the past 100 years claim to demonstrate perception, Ieaming, or memory without conscious awareness, the distinction between conscious and unconscious ’ processes remains highly controversial. For example, the same empirical findings that Holender 1986 concludes provide little or no evidence for unconscious perception are considered by other reviewers (e.g. Dixon 1981) as conclusive and overwhelming documentation of the validity of perception without awareness.|
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