David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 13 (2):93-118 (2003)
: When may a physician legitimately offer enrollment in a randomized clinical trial (RCT) to her patient? Two answers to this question have had a profound impact on the research ethics literature. Equipoise, as originated by Charles Fried, which we term Fried's equipoise (FE), stipulates that a physician may offer trial enrollment to her patient only when the physician is genuinely uncertain as to the preferred treatment. Clinical equipoise (CE), originated by Benjamin Freedman, requires that there exist a state of honest, professional disagreement in the community of expert practitioners as to the preferred treatment. FE and CE are widely understood as competing concepts. We argue that FE and CE offer separable and, in themselves, incomplete justifications for the conduct of clinical trials. FE articulates conditions under which the fiduciary duties of physician to patient may be upheld in the conduct of research. CE sets out a standard for the social approval of research by institutional review boards. Viewed in this way, FE and CE are not necessarily competing notions, but rather address complementary moral concerns
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James A. Anderson (2009). Contextualizing Clinical Research: The Epistemological Role of Clinical Equipoise. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (4):269-288.
Jacquelyn Slomka (2009). Manufacturing Mistrust: Issues in the Controversy Regarding Foster Children in the Pediatric Hiv/Aids Clinical Trials. Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (4):503-516.
T. Phillips (2011). From the Ideal Market to the Ideal Clinic: Constructing a Normative Standard of Fairness for Human Subjects Research. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 36 (1):79-106.
Joshua Crites (2011). Are More Trials Really the Answer? Putting Behavioral Equipoise in Check. American Journal of Bioethics 11 (2):16 - 17.
Christine Czoli, Michael Silva, Randi Zlotnik Shaul, Lori Agincourt-Canning, Christy Simpson, Katherine Boydell, Natalie Rashkovan & Sharon Vanin (2011). Accountability and Pediatric Physician-Researchers: Are Theoretical Models Compatible with Canadian Lived Experience? Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 6 (1):15-.
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