David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Social Philosophy and Policy 24 (2):90-129 (2007)
The Federalist, written by “Publius” (Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison) in 1787-1788 in defense of the proposed constitution of the United States, endorses a fundamental principle of political legitimacy: namely, “it is the reason of the public alone, that ought to control and regulate the government.” This essay argues that this principle—the rule of reason—may be traced back to Plato. Part I of the essay seeks to show that Plato's Statesman offers a clearer understanding of the rule of reason than his more famous Republic, and it also indicates how this principle gave rise to the ideal of constitutionalism, which was adopted and reformulated by Aristotle, Polybius, and Cicero, as well as moderns including Locke and Montesquieu. Part II argues that The Federalist agrees with Plato when it argues that popular sovereignty must be tempered by the rule of reason. A proper distance should be maintained between the people and the actual exercise of power in order that political decisions be based on reason rather than passion. The people must therefore act through a federal system divided between national government and state governments, and these governments must themselves possess separated powers which control each other by means of checks and balances. Indeed, federalism itself may be viewed as a modern counterpart of Plato's “art of weaving,” which unites naturally disparate and opposed parts of the city-state into a concordant whole. In declaring, “If men were angels, no government would be necessary,” The Federalist concedes that politics is the art of the possible. But statesmanship is not an exercise in pragmatism devoid of principles. Here “Publius” shares Plato's vision of politics as a “second sailing,” that is, an attempt to approximate the ideal of rational governance as far as possible in ordinary politics. Footnotesa This paper was originally presented at a meeting of the Symposium on Political Thought at Bowling Green State University. I am very grateful to the participants for their helpful suggestions, including Peter Celello, Albert Dzur, Neil Englehart, Jefferson Holcomb, David Jackson, Melissa Miller, Terrence Watson, and Adam White. I also received valuable criticisms from David Keyt, Ellen Frankel Paul, and the other contributors to this volume.
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
No citations found.
Similar books and articles
Hsei-Yung Hsu, Just State and Just Man : A Dialogue Between Plato and Confucius. PhD Thesis, University of Glasgow.
Carrie-Ann Biondi (2007). Aristotle on the Mixed Constitution and its Relevance for American Political Thought. Social Philosophy and Policy 24 (2):176-198.
Zena Hitz (2010). Degenerate Regimes in Plato's Republic. In Mark McPherran (ed.), Plato's Republic: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press.
Christopher Bobonich (2007). Why Should Philosophers Rule? Plato's Republic and Aristotle's Protrepticus. Social Philosophy and Policy 24 (2):153-175.
Thom Brooks (2006). Knowledge and Power in Plato's Political Thought. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 14 (1):51 – 77.
George Heffernan (1987). From “Pure Democracy” to 'Pure Republic'. Philosophy Research Archives 13:1-62.
Fred D. Miller Jr (2007). The Rule of Reason in Plato's Statesman and the American Federalist. In David Keyt & Fred Dycus Miller (eds.), Freedom, Reason, and the Polis: Essays in Ancient Greek Political Philosophy. Cambridge University Press. 90-.
M. S. Lane (1998). Method and Politics in Plato's Statesman. Cambridge University Press.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads14 ( #113,890 of 1,101,150 )
Recent downloads (6 months)8 ( #27,838 of 1,101,150 )
How can I increase my downloads?