David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa
Jack Alan Reynolds
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In W. Banks (ed.), Encyclopedia of Consciousness. Elsevier (2009)
Inner speech represents the activity of talking to oneself in silence. It can be assessed with questionnaires, sampling methods, and electromyographic recordings of articulatory movements. Inner speech has been linked to thought processes and self-awareness. Private speech (speech-for-self emitted aloud by children) serves an important self-regulatory function. The frequency of private speech follows an inverted-U relation with age, peaking at 3-4 years of age and disappearing at age 10. Social and inner speech share a common neurological basis: Broca’s area. Dysfunctional self-talk is known to mediate many pathological conditions; negative selfverbalizations have a more significant debilitating impact than positive ones.
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Antonella Marchetti, Francesca Baglio, Isa Costantini, Ottavia Dipasquale, Federica Savazzi, Raffaello Nemni, Francesca Sangiuliano Intra, Semira Tagliabue, Annalisa Valle, Davide Massaro & Ilaria Castelli (2015). Theory of Mind and the Whole Brain Functional Connectivity: Behavioral and Neural Evidences with the Amsterdam Resting State Questionnaire. Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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