David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Thinking and Reasoning 15 (1):37-68 (2011)
Two studies are reported which demonstrate that analytic responding on everyday reasoning problems can be increased and bias eliminated after training on the law of large numbers (Fong, Krantz, & Nisbett, 1986). Critical thinking problems involving belief-consistent, neutral, and inconsistent conclusions were presented. Belief bias was eliminated when a written justification of argument strength was elicited. However, belief-based responding was still evident when evaluations of the arguments were elicited using rating scales. This finding demonstrates a dissociation between analytic and belief-based responding as a function of response format. In Experiment 2 an instructional condition designed to foster decontextualised reasoning was included but was ineffective in reducing the degree to which judgements were biased by beliefs. It was concluded that training which makes available the analytic strategies necessary to evaluate a problem has the potential to facilitate performance only if the requested response triggers conscious deliberation of the evidence.
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
No citations found.
Similar books and articles
Kevin Barton, Jonathan Fugelsang & Daniel Smilek (2011). Inhibiting Beliefs Demands Attention. Thinking and Reasoning 15 (3):250-267.
Kevin Barton, Jonathan Fugelsang & Daniel Smilek (2009). Inhibiting Beliefs Demands Attention. Thinking and Reasoning 15 (3):250 – 267.
Jeff Stickney (2008). Training and Mastery of Techniques in Wittgenstein's Later Philosophy: A Response to Michael Luntley. Educational Philosophy and Theory 40 (5):678-694.
Dr Simon J. Handley, A. Capon, M. Beveridge, I. Dennis & J. St BT Evans (2004). Working Memory, Inhibitory Control and the Development of Children's Reasoning. Thinking and Reasoning 10 (2):175 – 195.
Robert C. Mathews & Ron Sun, Effects of Model-Based and Memory-Based Processing on Speed and Accuracy of Grammar String Generation.
Hilary J. Leevers & Paul L. Harris (1999). Persisting Effects of Instruction on Young Children's Syllogistic Reasoning with Incongruent and Abstract Premises. Thinking and Reasoning 5 (2):145 – 173.
Linden J. Ball & Edward J. N. Stupple (2008). Belief-Logic Conflict Resolution in Syllogistic Reasoning: Inspection-Time Evidence for a Parallel-Process Model. Thinking and Reasoning 14 (2):168-181.
Edward J. N. Stupple & Linden J. Ball (2008). Belief-Logic Conflict Resolution in Syllogistic Reasoning: Inspection-Time Evidence for a Parallel-Process Model. Thinking and Reasoning 14 (2):168 – 181.
Jonathan St B. T. Evans & Jodie Curtis-Holmes (2005). Rapid Responding Increases Belief Bias: Evidence for the Dual-Process Theory of Reasoning. Thinking and Reasoning 11 (4):382 – 389.
Helen L. Neilens, Simon J. Handley & Stephen E. Newstead (2009). Effects of Training and Instruction on Analytic and Belief-Based Reasoning Processes. Thinking and Reasoning 15 (1):37 – 68.
Added to index2010-07-12
Total downloads7 ( #400,627 of 1,789,825 )
Recent downloads (6 months)6 ( #139,341 of 1,789,825 )
How can I increase my downloads?