Facing the Sunrise: Cultural Worldview Underlying Intrinsic-Based Encoding of Absolute Frames of Reference in Aymara
David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Cognitive Science 36 (6):965-991 (2012)
The Aymara of the Andes use absolute (cardinal) frames of reference for describing the relative position of ordinary objects. However, rather than encoding them in available absolute lexemes, they do it in lexemes that are intrinsic to the body: nayra (“front”) and qhipa (“back”), denoting east and west, respectively. Why? We use different but complementary ethnographic methods to investigate the nature of this encoding: (a) linguistic expressions and speech–gesture co-production, (b) linguistic patterns in the distinct regional Spanish-based variety Castellano Andino (CA), (c) metaphorical extensions of CA’s spatial patterns to temporal ones, and (d) layouts of traditional houses. Findings indicate that, following fundamental principles of Aymara cosmology, people, objects, and land—as a whole—are conceived as having an implicit canonical orientation facing east, a primary landmark determined by the sunrise. The above bodily based lexicalizations are thus linguistic manifestations of a broader macro-cultural worldview and its psycho-cognitive reality
|Keywords||Language and thought Embodied cognition Everyday cognition Cognitive ethnography Aymara Gesture Spatial frames of reference Whorfian hypothesis|
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Citations of this work BETA
Rafael Núñez & Kensy Cooperrider (2013). The Tangle of Space and Time in Human Cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17 (5):220-229.
Andrea Bender & Sieghard Beller (2014). Mapping Spatial Frames of Reference Onto Time: A Review of Theoretical Accounts and Empirical Findings. [REVIEW] Cognition 132 (3):342-382.
Wolff‐Michael Roth & Timothy J. Mavin (2015). Peer Assessment of Aviation Performance: Inconsistent for Good Reasons. Cognitive Science 39 (2):405-433.
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