David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Foundations of Chemistry 7 (3):241-268 (2005)
The Periodic Table has the column of the noble gas atoms (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) as one of its main pillars. Indeed the inert chemical nature of their closed shell structure is so striking that it is sometimes extended to all such structures. Is it true however that any closed shell, say a closed d-subshell will denote a lack of chemical activity? Take the noble metals for instance, so renowned for their catalytic capacity. Platinum has 10 electrons in its valence shell which makes one of its excited states to be a closed 5d10–6s0 state. Surely this state would not be expected to be crucial to the catalytic activity of platinum, or would it? Or take palladium whose ground state is precisely the 4d10–5s0 state, should we expect that an isolated Pd atom at near zero-point temperature would attack a closed-shell hydrogen molecule efficiently? We shall here show that this is precisely the case; the closed-shell excited states of nickel and platinum are indeed crucial, through symmetry avoided crossings, for their reactivity. Other valuable catalysts as ruthenium depend on their excited states with maximal d-shell occupancy for their activity. The most notable confirmation of this new finding; that closed d-shells are vital to the catalytic activity of noble metals however, is the case of palladium whose closed-shell ground state is indeed capable of attacking hydrogen and hydrocarbon molecules even at temperatures well below 10 K as was predicted theoretically and immediately confirmed experimentally.
|Keywords||Philosophy Chemistry/Food Science, general Physical Chemistry Philosophy of Science History|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
No citations found.
Similar books and articles
Wai Yan Pong (2000). Some Applications of Ordinal Dimensions to the Theory of Differentially Closed Fields. Journal of Symbolic Logic 65 (1):347-356.
Jan Ch Karlsson (2011). People Can Not Only Open Closed Systems, They Can Also Close Open Systems. Journal of Critical Realism 10 (2):145-162.
Peter Murphy (2006). A Strategy for Assessing Closure. Erkenntnis 65 (3):365 - 383.
Octavio Novaro (2008). On the Rightful Place for He Within the Periodic Table. Foundations of Chemistry 10 (1):3-12.
Peter Murphy (2006). A Strategy for Assessing Closure. Erkenntnis 65 (3):365-383.
Carol Wood (1979). Notes on the Stability of Separably Closed Fields. Journal of Symbolic Logic 44 (3):412-416.
W. P. Griffith (2010). The Group VIII Platinum-Group Metals and the Periodic Table. Foundations of Chemistry 12 (1):17-25.
Jan E. Holly (1995). Canonical Forms for Definable Subsets of Algebraically Closed and Real Closed Valued Fields. Journal of Symbolic Logic 60 (3):843-860.
Greg Bishop (1995). Ultrafilters Generated by a Closed Set of Functions. Journal of Symbolic Logic 60 (2):415-430.
Sven Ove Hansson (1992). In Defense of Base Contraction. Synthese 91 (3):239 - 245.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads20 ( #177,590 of 1,790,294 )
Recent downloads (6 months)1 ( #429,817 of 1,790,294 )
How can I increase my downloads?