Contrast classes and matching bias as explanations of the effects of negation on conditional reasoning
David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Thinking and Reasoning 8 (2):135 – 151 (2002)
In this paper the arguments for optimal data selection and the contrast class account of negations in the selection task and the conditional inference task are summarised, and contrasted with the matching bias approach. It is argued that the probabilistic contrast class account provides a unified, rational explanation for effects across these tasks. Moreover, there are results that are only explained by the contrast class account that are also discussed. The only major anomaly is the explicit negations effect in the selection task (Evans, Clibbens, & Rood, 1996), which it is argued may not be the result of normal interpretative processes. It is concluded that the effects of negation on human reasoning provide good evidence for the view that human reasoning processes may be rational according to a probabilistic standard.
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
Nick Perham & Mike Oaksford (2005). Deontic Reasoning With Emotional Content: Evolutionary Psychology or Decision Theory? Cognitive Science 29 (5):681-718.
Similar books and articles
Jérôme Prado & Ira A. Noveck (2006). How Reaction Time Measures Elucidate the Matching Bias and the Way Negations Are Processed. Thinking and Reasoning 12 (3):309 – 328.
Mike Oaksford, Nick Chater & Becki Grainger (1999). Probabilistic Effects in Data Selection. Thinking and Reasoning 5 (3):193 – 243.
Walter Schroyens, Niki Verschueren, Walter Schaeken & Gery D'Ydewalle (2000). Conditional Reasoning with Negations: Implicit and Explicit Affirmation or Denial and the Role of Contrast Classes. Thinking and Reasoning 6 (3):221 – 251.
Walter J. Schroyens, Walter Schaeken & G. (2001). The Processing of Negations in Conditional Reasoning: A Meta-Analytic Case Study in Mental Model and/or Mental Logic Theory. Thinking and Reasoning 7 (2):121 – 172.
Sylvain Moutier, Nathalie Angeard & Olivier Houde (2002). Deductive Reasoning and Matching-Bias Inhibition Training: Evidence From a Debiasing Paradigm. Thinking and Reasoning 8 (3):205 – 224.
Jonathan St B. T. Evans (2002). Matching Bias and Set Sizes: A Discussion of Yama (2001). Thinking and Reasoning 8 (2):153 – 163.
Jonathan St B. T. Evans (1998). Matching Bias in Conditional Reasoning: Do We Understand It After 25 Years? Thinking and Reasoning 4 (1):45 – 110.
Hiroshi Yama (2001). Matching Versus Optimal Data Selection in the Wason Selection Task. Thinking and Reasoning 7 (3):295 – 311.
Edgar Erdfelder, Karl Christoph Klauer & Christoph Stahl (2008). Matching Bias in the Selection Task is Not Eliminated by Explicit Negations. Thinking and Reasoning 14 (3):281-303.
Christoph Stahl, Karl Christoph Klauer & Edgar Erdfelder (2008). Matching Bias in the Selection Task is Not Eliminated by Explicit Negations. Thinking and Reasoning 14 (3):281 – 303.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads10 ( #168,349 of 1,682,537 )
Recent downloads (6 months)1 ( #183,788 of 1,682,537 )
How can I increase my downloads?