Emergent properties

American Philosophical Quarterly 31 (2):91-104 (1994)
All organised bodies are composed of parts, similar to those composing inorganic nature, and which have even themselves existed in an inorganic state; but the phenomena of life, which result from the juxtaposition of those parts in a certain manner, bear no analogy to any of the effects which would be produced by the action of the component substances considered as mere physical agents. To whatever degree we might imagine our knowledge of the properties of the several ingredients of a living body to be extended and perfected, it is certain that no mere summing up of the separate actions of those elements will ever amount to the action of the living body itself
Keywords Dualism  Empiricism  Epistemology  Nature  Property
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Howard Rachlin (1995). The Elusive Quale. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (4):692.
Nicholas J. Teh (2013). Holography and Emergence. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 44 (3):300-311.

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