David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 12 (3) (1991)
We review three possible theoretical mechanisms for the placebo effect: conditioning, expectancy and endogenous opiates and consider the implications of the first two for clinical research and practice in the area of pain management. Methodological issues in the use of placebos as controls are discussed and include subtractive versus additive expectancy effects, no treatment controls, active placebo controls, the balanced placebo design, between- versus within-group designs, triple blind methodology and the double expectancy design. Therapeutically, the possibility of shaping negative placebo responses through placebo sag, overservicing and the use of placebos on their own are explored. Suggestions for using conditioned placebos strategically in conjunction with nonplacebos are made and ways of maximizing the placebo component of nonplacebo treatments are examined. Finally, the importance of investigating the placebo effect in its own right is advocated in order to better understand the long-neglected psychological aspects of the therapeutic transaction.
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
No citations found.
Similar books and articles
Franklin G. Miller & Howard Brody (2002). What Makes Placebo-Controlled Trials Unethical? American Journal of Bioethics 2 (2):3 – 9.
Jeremy Sugarman (2004). Using Empirical Data to Inform the Ethical Evaluation of Placebo Controlled Trials. Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):29-35.
Raúl de la Fuente-Fernández & A. Jon Stoessl (2004). The Biochemical Bases of the Placebo Effect. Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):143-150.
Thomas R. Weihrauch (2004). Placebo Treatment is Effective Differently in Different Diseases — but is It Also Harmless? A Brief Synopsis. Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):151-155.
Daniel Groll (2011). What You Don't Know Can Help You: The Ethics of Placebo Treatment. Journal of Applied Philosophy 28 (2):188-202.
Robert J. Connelly (1991). Nursing Responsibility for the Placebo Effect. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 16 (3):325-341.
Andrew Turner (2012). 'Placebos' and the Logic of Placebo Comparison. Biology and Philosophy 27 (3):419-432.
Nikola Biller-Andorno (2004). The Use of the Placebo Effect in Clinical Medicine — Ethical Blunder or Ethical Imperative? Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):43-50.
Adam J. Kolber (2007). A Limited Defense of Clinical Placebo Deception. Yale Law & Policy Review 26:75-134.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads18 ( #98,533 of 1,102,033 )
Recent downloads (6 months)3 ( #128,871 of 1,102,033 )
How can I increase my downloads?