David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
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Journal of Consciousness Studies 2 (2):98-111 (1995)
Grush and Churchland (1995) attempt to address aspects of the proposal that we have been making concerning a possible physical mechanism underlying the phenomenon of consciousness. Unfortunately, they employ arguments that are highly misleading and, in some important respects, factually incorrect. Their article ‘Gaps in Penrose’s Toilings’ is addressed specifically at the writings of one of us (Penrose), but since the particular model they attack is one put forward by both of us (Hameroff and Penrose, 1995; 1996), it is appropriate that we both reply; but since our individual remarks refer to different aspects of their criticism we are commenting on their article separately. The logical arguments discussed by Grush and Churchland, and the related physics are answered in Part l by Penrose, largely by pointing out precisely where these arguments have already been treated in detail in Shadows of the Mind (Penrose, 1994). In Part 2, Hameroff replies to various points on the biological side, showing for example how they have seriously misunderstood what they refer to as ‘physiological evidence’ regarding to effects of the drug colchicine. The reply serves also to discuss aspects of our model ‘orchestrated objective reduction in brain microtubules – Orch OR’ which attempts to deal with the serious problems of consciousness more directly and completely than any previous theory.
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Citations of this work BETA
Anthony P. Atkinson, Michael S. C. Thomas & Axel Cleeremans (2000). Consciousness: Mapping the Theoretical Landscape. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (10):372-382.
Mark Balaguer (2009). Why There Are No Good Arguments for Any Interesting Version of Determinism. Synthese 168 (1):1 - 21.
Stuart R. Hameroff (2001). Anesthesia: The "Other Side" of Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 10 (2):217-229.
Stuart Hameroff (2014). Quantum Walks in Brain Microtubules—A Biomolecular Basis for Quantum Cognition? Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (1):91-97.
Arthur S. Reber (1997). Caterpillars and Consciousness. Philosophical Psychology 10 (4):437-49.
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Stuart R. Hameroff & Roger Penrose (1996). Orchestrated Reduction of Quantum Coherence in Brain Microtubules: A Model for Consciousness. In Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness. MIT Press
Stuart R. Hameroff (2001). Biological Feasibility of Quantum Approaches to Consciousness: The Penrose-Hameroff 'Orch Or' Model. In P. Loockvane (ed.), The Physical Nature of Consciousness. John Benjamins
Rick Grush & Patricia Smith Churchland (1995). Gaps in Penroses Toiling. Journal of Consciousness Studies 2 (1):10-29.
Stuart R. Hameroff (1998). More Neural Than Thou (Reply to Churchland). In S. Ameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness Ii: The 1996 Tucson Discussions and Debates. MIT Press
Rick Grush & P. Churchland (1995). Gaps in Penrose's Toiling. In Thomas Metzinger (ed.), Journal of Consciousness Studies. Ferdinand Schoningh 10-29.
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