A Questão do Pacto na Teoria Política de Spinoza

Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 58 (2):347 - 357 (2002)
Abstract
O presente artigo procura mostrar qual o papel que Spinoza confere ao pacto na sua filosofia politica. Assentando os fundamentos de utna comunidade no direito natural e no desejo de autoconservação, Spinoza considera o pacto apenas como uma atitude provisória para impedir a manifestação dos conflitos do estado natural. O estado natural é uma condicao de impotência e, por isso, o pacto não significa transferência de poder. O pacto origina a sociedade, mas não é a causa do poder de um Estado civil. O poder do Estado fundamenta-se no desejo de autoconservação dos indivíduos que o compõem, de modo que direito civil e direito natural se realizam conjuntamente no Estado. /// This article tries to show the role that Spinoza gives to the concept of "pact" in his political philosophy. Grounding the foundations of a community in the natural rights and in the desire for self-preservation, Spinoza considers the pact as only a provisional attitude to avoid the manifestation of the conflicts proper to the state of nature. The state of nature is a condition of impotence and, thus, the pact doesn't mean a transferal of power. Society originates with the pact, but is not the cause of power in a civil State. The power of the State is grounded in the desire for self-preservation of the individuals belonging to it, so that the civil rights and the natural rights may be fulfilled together in the State.
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