Bernhard von Clairvaux, Robert von Melun und die Anfange des mittelalterlichen Voluntarismus

Vivarium 50 (1):1-32 (2012)
Abstract
Abstract Two distinguishing marks of voluntaristic conceptions of human action can be found already in the 12th century, not only in the work of Bonaventura's successors: 1. the will is free to act against reasons's dictates; 2. moral responsibility depends on this conception of the will's freedom. A number of theologians from the 1130s to the 1170s accepted those claims, which have been originally formulated by Bernard of Clairvaux. Robert of Melun elaborated them in a systematical way and coined the terminological distinctions which were controversely discussed in the following centuries. The paper edits and interprets some of his texts about voluntary action. Furthermore, it shows that Bernard's and Robert's ideas have been transported by their intellectualist critics in the 13th century
Keywords liberum arbitrium   Robert of Melun   Bernard of Clairvaux   voluntarism   Will   intellectualism
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