Childhood experience and the expression of genetic potential: What childhood neglect tells us about nature and nurture [Book Review]
David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Brain and Mind 3 (1):79-100 (2002)
Studies of childhood abuse and neglect haveimportant lessons for considerations of natureand nurture. While each child has uniquegenetic potentials, both human and animalstudies point to important needs that everychild has, and severe long-term consequencesfor brain function if those needs are not met. The effects of the childhood environment,favorable or unfavorable, interact with all theprocesses of neurodevelopment (neurogenesis,migration, differentiation, apoptosis,arborization, synaptogenesis, synapticsculpting, and myelination). The time coursesof all these neural processes are reviewed herealong with statements of core principles forboth genetic and environmental influences onall of these processes. Evidence is presentedthat development of synaptic pathways tends tobe a ``use it or lose it'' proposition.Abuse studies from the author's laboratory,studies of children in orphanages who lackedemotional contact, and a large number of animaldeprivation and enrichment studies point to theneed for children and young nonhuman mammals tohave both stable emotional attachments with andtouch from primary adult caregivers, andspontaneous interactions with peers. If theseconnections are lacking, brain development bothof caring behavior and cognitive capacities isdamaged in a lasting fashion.These effects of experience on the brainimply that effects of modern technology can bepositive but need to be monitored. Whiletechnology has raised opportunities forchildren to become economically secure andliterate, more recent inadvertent impacts oftechnology have spawned declines in extendedfamilies, family meals, and spontaneous peerinteractions. The latter changes have deprivedmany children of experiences that promotepositive growth of the cognitive and caringpotentials of their developing brains.
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
Karl E. Peters (2012). Human Salvation in an Evolutionary World: An Exploration in Christian Naturalism. Zygon 47 (4):843-869.
Cees van Leeuwen (2015). What Makes You Think You Are Conscious? An Agnosticist Manifesto. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
Similar books and articles
Harry Morgan (1999). The Imagination of Early Childhood Education. Bergin & Garvey.
Anthony Krupp (2009). Reason's Children: Childhood in Early Modern Philosophy. Bucknell University Press.
Lainie Friedman Ross (2002). Predictive Genetic Testing for Conditions That Present in Childhood. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 12 (3):225-244.
Sally J. Scholz (2010). That All Children Should Be Free: Beauvoir, Rousseau, and Childhood. Hypatia 25 (2):394 - 411.
Matthew L. Baum (2013). The Monoamine Oxidase A (MAOA) Genetic Predisposition to Impulsive Violence: Is It Relevant to Criminal Trials? Neuroethics 6 (2):287-306.
Carol Aubrey (ed.) (2000). Early Childhood Educational Research: Issues in Methodology and Ethics. Routledgefalmer Press.
Lucy Cragg & Kate Nation (2010). Language and the Development of Cognitive Control. Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (4):631-642.
Sandy Farquhar (2012). Narrative Identity and Early Childhood Education. Educational Philosophy and Theory 44 (3):289-301.
Bruno Vanobbergen (2004). Wanted: Real Children. About Innocence and Nostalgia in a Commodified Childhood. Studies in Philosophy and Education 23 (2/3):161-176.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads141 ( #27,575 of 1,911,679 )
Recent downloads (6 months)15 ( #40,430 of 1,911,679 )
How can I increase my downloads?