David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Plant Species Biology 11:69-85 (1996)
How micro- and macroevolutionary evolutionary processes produce phenotypic change is without question one of the most intriguing and perplexing issues facing evolutionary biologists. We believe that roadblocks to progress lie A) in the underestimation of the role of the environment, and in particular, that of the interaction of genotypes with environmental factors, and B) in the continuing lack of incorporation of development into the evolutionary synthesis. We propose the integration of genetic, environmental and developmental perspectives on the evolution of the phenotype in the form of the concept of the developmental reaction norm (DRN) The DRN represents the set of multivariate ontogenies that can be produced by a single genotype when it is exposed to environmental variation. It encompasses: 1) the processes that alter the phenotype throughout the ontogenetic trajectory, 2) the recognition that different aspects of the phenotype are (and must be) correlated and 3) the ability of a genotype to produce phenotypes in different environments. This perspective necessitates the explicit study of character expression during development, the evaluation of associations between pairs or groups of characters (e.g., multivariate allometries), and the exploration of reaction norms and phenotypic plasticity. We explicitly extend the concept of the DRN to encompass adjustments made in response to changes in the internal environment as well. Thus, ‘typical’ developmental sequences (e.g., cell fate determination) and plastic responses are simply manifestations of different scales of ‘environmental’ effects along a continuum. We present: (1) a brief conceptual review of three fundamental aspects of the generation and evolution of phenotypes: the changes in the trajectories describing growth and differentiation (ontogeny), the multivariate relationships among characters (allometry), and the effect of the environment (plasticity); (2) a discussion of how these components are merged in the concept of the developmental reaction norm; and (3) a reaction norm perspective of major determinants of phenotypes: epigenesis, selection and constraint.
|Keywords||nature vs nurture reaction norm allometry|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
No citations found.
Similar books and articles
Carl Schlichting & Massimo Pigliucci (1998). Phenotypic Evolution: A Reaction Norm Perspective. Sinauer.
Carl Schlichting & Massimo Pigliucci (1995). Gene Regulation, Quantitative Genetics and the Evolution of Reaction Norms. Evolutionary Ecology 9:154-168.
Massimo Pigliucci (1996). How Organisms Respond to Environmental Changes: From Phenotypes to Molecules (and Vice Versa). Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11 (4):168-173.
Massimo Pigliucci (2001). Characters and Environments. In G. P. Wagner (ed.), The Character Concept in Evolutionary Biology. Academic Press
Massimo Pigliucci (1998). Developmental Phenotypic Plasticity: Where Internal Programming Meets the External Environment. Current Biology 1:87-91.
Massimo Pigliucci (1998). Plasticity Genes: What Are They, and Why Should We Care? In H. Greppin, R. Degli Agosti & C. Penel (eds.), The Co-Action Between Living Systems and the Planet. University of Geneva
Hilary Callahan, Massimo Pigliucci & Carl Schlichting (1997). Developmental Phenotypic Plasticity: Where Ecology and Evolution Meet Molecular Biology. Bioessays 19 (6):519-525.
Massimo Pigliucci (2001). Phenotypic Plasticity: Beyond Nature and Nurture. Johns Hopkins University Press.
Carl Schlichting & Massimo Pigliucci (1993). Control of Phenotypic Plasticity Via Regulatory Genes. American Naturalist 142 (2):366-370.
Massimo Pigliucci (2001). Phenotypic Plasticity. In C. W. Fox D. A. Roff (ed.), Evolutionary Ecology: Concepts and Case Studies.
Massimo Pigliucci (2005). Evolution of Phenotypic Plasticity: Where Are We Going Now? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20 (9):481-486.
Massimo Pigliucci (2005). Expanding Evolution. [REVIEW] Nature 435:565-566.
Bernard Jeune & Denis Barabé (1995). Allometry and Geometry Ofbegonia Leaves. Acta Biotheoretica 43 (3):205-215.
Sahotra Sarkar (1999). From the reaktionsNorm to the Adaptive Norm: The Norm of Reaction, 1909–1960. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 14 (2):235-252.
Added to index2012-06-08
Total downloads62 ( #55,012 of 1,726,249 )
Recent downloads (6 months)19 ( #42,367 of 1,726,249 )
How can I increase my downloads?