David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Biology and Philosophy 28 (3):439-455 (2013)
Extrapolation from a well-understood base population to a less-understood target population can fail if the base and target populations are not sufficiently similar. Differences between laboratory mice and humans, for example, can hinder extrapolation in medical research. Mice that carry a partial or complete human physiological system, known as humanized mice, are supposed to make extrapolation more reliable by simulating a variety of human diseases. But what justifies our belief that these mice are similar enough to their human counterparts to simulate human disease? I argue that, unless three requirements are met in the process of humanizing mice, very little does. My requirements are not meant to provide necessary and sufficient conditions that guarantee a particular outcome. Instead, they serve as a heuristic for guiding scientific judgments involving extrapolation. In developing each requirement, I engage with philosophical issues concerning the nature of model-based science and the mechanistic approach (and its limits) to making generalizations in the life sciences
|Keywords||Extrapolation Genetic engineering Humanized mice Mechanism Models|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
Rachel A. Ankeny (2001). Model Organisms as Models: Understanding the 'Lingua Franca' of the Human Genome Project. Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2001 (3):S251-.
William Bechtel (2005). Explanation: A Mechanist Alternative. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biol and Biomed Sci 36 (2):421--441.
Jessica A. Bolker (1995). Model Systems in Developmental Biology. Bioessays 17 (5):451-455.
Richard M. Burian (1993). How the Choice of Experimental Organism Matters: Epistemological Reflections on an Aspect of Biological Practice. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 26 (2):351 - 367.
Nancy Cartwright (1989). Nature's Capacities and Their Measurement. Oxford University Press.
Citations of this work BETA
Tudor M. Baetu (2014). Models and the Mosaic of Scientific Knowledge. The Case of Immunology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 45:49-56.
Monika Piotrowska (2014). Transferring Morality to Human–Nonhuman Chimeras. American Journal of Bioethics 14 (2):4-12.
Similar books and articles
Peter Vallentyne (2005). Of Mice and Men: Equality and Animals. [REVIEW] Journal of Ethics 9 (3-4):403 - 433.
Paul Bloom (1998). Different Structures for Concepts of Individuals, Stuffs, and Real Kinds: One Mama, More Milk, and Many Mice. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1):66-67.
Daniel W. Cunningham (1998). The Fine Structure of Real Mice. Journal of Symbolic Logic 63 (3):937-994.
Dirk Kerzel & Jochen Müsseler (2008). Mental and Sensorimotor Extrapolation Fare Better Than Motion Extrapolation in the Offset Condition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (2):206-207.
Camilla Flodin (2011). Of Mice and Men: Adorno on Art and the Suffering of Animals. Estetika 48 (2):139-156.
Itay Neeman & John Steel (1999). A Weak Dodd-Jensen Lemma. Journal of Symbolic Logic 64 (3):1285-1294.
Daniel Steel (2008). Across the Boundaries: Extrapolation in Biology and Social Science. Oxford University Press.
Daniel Steel & S. Kedzie Hall (2010). A New Approach to Argument by Analogy: Extrapolation and Chain Graphs. Philosophy of Science 77 (5):1058-1069.
Holger Schultheis & Harald Lachnit (2009). Of Mice and Men: Revisiting the Relation of Nonhuman and Human Learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (2):224-225.
F. Barbara Orlans (2000). The Injustice of Excluding Laboratory Rats, Mice, and Birds From the Animal Welfare Act. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 10 (3):229-238.
Jean-Louis Gariépy & Ramona M. Rodriguiz (2002). Issues of Establishment, Consolidation, and Reorganization in Biobehavioral Adaptation. Brain and Mind 3 (1):53-77.
Cynthia B. Cohen (2003). Creating Human-Nonhuman Chimeras: Of Mice and Men. American Journal of Bioethics 3 (3):3 – 5.
Added to index2012-05-24
Total downloads10 ( #144,874 of 1,098,984 )
Recent downloads (6 months)2 ( #175,054 of 1,098,984 )
How can I increase my downloads?