David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Behavior and Philosophy 23 (3-1):13 - 30 (1995)
A symbol is defined as a species of sign. The concept of a sign coincides with Skinner's (1938) concept of a discriminative stimulus. Symbols differ from other signs in five respects: (1) They are stimuli which the organism can both respond to and produce, either as a self-directed stimulus (as in thinking) or as a stimulus for another individual with a predictably similar response from the recipient in each case. (2) they act as discriminative stimuli for the same kind of object for all members of the verbal community within which they function as a symbols; (3) they acquire their properties by virtue of arbitrary social convention rather than any natural and intrinsic connection between the sign and what it is a sign of; (4) competent members of the verbal community can both produce the appropriate symbol in response to a naturally occurring sign of the presence of the object or a sample of the kind of object which the symbol stands for and select the appropriate object when presented with the symbol; (5) they form stimulus equivalence classes of the kind demonstrated in the matching-to-sample task (Sidman, 1971; Sidman and Tailby, 1982) both with other symbols having the same meaning and, more important, with the naturally-occurring non-symbolic signs of the presence of the object or kind of object which the symbol stands for.
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
No citations found.
Similar books and articles
Thomas E. Dickins & David W. Dickins (2001). Symbols, Stimulus Equivalence and the Origins of Language. Behavior and Philosophy 29:221 - 244.
Jonathan Bennett (1975). Stimulus, Response, Meaning. American Philosophical Quarterly 9:55-88.
Robert I. Reynolds (1988). A Psychological Definition of Illusion. Philosophical Psychology 1 (2):217-223.
Jochen Dreher (2003). The Symbol and the Theory of the Life-World: “The Transcendences of the Life-World and Their Overcoming by Signs and Symbols”. Human Studies 26 (2):141-163.
João Queiroz (2012). Dicent Symbols in Non-Human Semiotic Processes. Biosemiotics 5 (3):319-329.
Stevan Harnad (1990). The Symbol Grounding Problem. Philosophical Explorations 42:335-346.
Carol Slater (1997). Conceptualizing a Sunset [Not Equal] Using a Sunset as a Discriminative Stimulus. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):37-38.
Glenn D. Higginson (1935). Stimulus, Sensation, and Meaning. Journal of Philosophy 32 (24):645-650.
Melvin Fitting (2007). Correction to FOIL Axiomatized Studia Logica , 84:1–22, 2006. Studia Logica 85 (2):275 -.
Carlo Sini (1993). Images of Truth: From Sign to Symbol. Humanities Press.
Gottlob Frege (2010). On Sense and Reference. In Darragh Byrne & Max Kölbel (eds.), Arguing About Language. Routledge. 36--56.
Ehtibar N. Dzhafarov & Damir D. Dzhafarov (2010). Sorites Without Vagueness I: Classificatory Sorites. Theoria 76 (1):4-24.
David J. Chalmers (2013). Summary. Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 28 (1):171-173.
Added to index2011-05-29
Total downloads3 ( #297,395 of 1,102,698 )
Recent downloads (6 months)2 ( #182,643 of 1,102,698 )
How can I increase my downloads?