Estética ontológica vs. Estética humanista: Estudio de la idea del arte en M. Heidegger y Ortega y Gasset

Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 59 (4):1153 - 1180 (2003)
Abstract
As estéticas de Heidegger e Ortega representam dois modos de compreender a arte radicalmente distintos, o que é lógico se tivermos em conta que ambas respondem, por sua vez, a pontos de partida filosóficos absolutamente distintos: o ontológico e o humanista. Em oposição directa à estética ontológica heideggeriana, elaborada sobre a base da principalidade do ser, no segundo momento da sua filosofia pessoal e depois do seu contacto com o pensamento de Heidegger, Ortega, partindo da radicalidade metafísica do conceito de vida humana e do seu carácter hermenêutico, elabora uma hermenêutica raciobiográfica da arte como método adequado de aproximação ao fenómeno artístico bem como toda uma estética humanista que não faz senão desenvolver a tendência humanista que caracteriza essencialmente a filosofia orteguiana desde a sua origem. /// Heidegger and Ortega's aesthetics represent two radically opposed views of Art, coming from two different philosophical starting points: ontological and humanist, respectively. In direct opposition to the Heideggerean ontological aesthetic, founded on the primacy of being, Ortega elaborates in the second period of his philosophy, after his contact with Heidegger's ideas, a ratio-biographical hermeneutic of Art. Starting from the metaphysical radicalism of the concept of human life and its hermeneutical character, Ortega uses this hermeneutic to approach the artistic phenomenon. This humanistic aesthetic naturally develops from the humanistic tendency that characterizes the essence ofOrteguean philosophy from its origin.
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