David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (4):515-629 (1978)
An individual has a theory of mind if he imputes mental states to himself and others. A system of inferences of this kind is properly viewed as a theory because such states are not directly observable, and the system can be used to make predictions about the behavior of others. As to the mental states the chimpanzee may infer, consider those inferred by our own species, for example, purpose or intention, as well as knowledge, belief, thinking, doubt, guessing, pretending, liking, and so forth. To determine whether or not the chimpanzee infers states of this kind, we showed an adult chimpanzee a series of videotaped scenes of a human actor struggling with a variety of problems. Some problems were simple, involving inaccessible food as in the original Kohler problems; others were more complex, involving an actor unable to extricate himself from a locked cage, shivering because of a malfunctioning heater, or unable to play a phonograph because it was unplugged. With each videotape the chimpanzee was given several photographs, one a solution to the problem, such as a stick for the inaccessible bananas, a key for the locked up actor, a lit wick for the malfunctioning heater. The chimpanzee's consistent choice of the correct photographs can be understood by assuming that the animal recognized the videotape as representing a problem, understood the actor's purpose, and chose alternatives compatible with that purpose
|Keywords||chimpanzee communication cognition consciousness intentionality language mind primate intelligence|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
Shannon Spaulding (2013). Mirror Neurons and Social Cognition. Mind and Language 28 (2):233-257.
Joel Krueger (2011). Extended Cognition and the Space of Social Interaction. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):643-657.
Krist Vaesen (2012). The Cognitive Bases of Human Tool Use. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (4):203-262.
Joseph A. Hedger & William V. Fabricius (2011). True Belief Belies False Belief: Recent Findings of Competence in Infants and Limitations in 5-Year-Olds, and Implications for Theory of Mind Development. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 2 (3):429-447.
Robert M. Gordon (1986). Folk Psychology as Simulation. Mind and Language 1 (2):158-71.
Similar books and articles
Roger Fouts & Erin McKenna (2011). Chimpanzees and Sign Language: Darwinian Realities Versus Cartesian Delusions. The Pluralist 6 (3):19-24.
Kristin Andrews (2005). Chimpanzee Theory of Mind: Looking in All the Wrong Places? Mind and Language 20 (5):521-536.
Nobuyuki Kawai & Tetsuro Matsuzawa (2001). “Magical Number 5” in a Chimpanzee. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):127-128.
Daniel J. Povinelli & Jennifer Vonk (2004). We Don't Need a Microscope to Explore the Chimpanzee's Mind. Mind and Language 19 (1):1-28.
Lawrence H. Davis (1989). Self-Consciousness in Chimps and Pigeons. Philosophical Psychology 2 (3):249-59.
Maria Ujhelyi (1999). Territorial Song and Facial Gesture: A Language Precursor in Apes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):572-573.
C. M. Heyes (1998). Theory of Mind in Nonhuman Primates. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1):101-114.
Mary Lee A. Jensvold, Jacquelyn C. Buckner & Gina B. Stadtner (2011). Caregiverchimpanzee Interactions with Species-Specific Behaviors. Interaction Studies 11 (3):396-409.
Daniel J. Povinelli & Jennifer Vonk (2006). We Don't Need a Microscope to Explore the Chimpanzee's Mind. In Susan L. Hurley & Matthew Nudds (eds.), Rational Animals? Oxford University Press. 1-28.
William M. Baum (1998). Why Not Ask “Does the Chimpanzee Have a Soul?”. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1):116-116.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads372 ( #639 of 1,103,008 )
Recent downloads (6 months)91 ( #511 of 1,103,008 )
How can I increase my downloads?