Problems for Credulism

We have several intuitive paradigms of defeating evidence. For example, let E be the fact that Ernie tells me that the notorious pet Precious is a bird. This supports the premise F, that Precious can fly. However, Orna gives me *opposing* evidence. She says that Precious (the same Precious) is a dog. Alternatively, defeating evidence might not oppose Ernie's testimony in that direct way. There might be other ways for it to weaken the support that Ernie's testimony gives me for believing F, without the new evidence itself intuitively constituting reasons to believe one way or the other about Precious's flight ability. An example: <span class='Hi'>Ursula</span> tells me that Ernie has no idea what Precious's species is; he's just guessing. She may not herself want to or be in a position to weigh in about Precious's real species or flight ability. I call defeating evidence of this sort *undermining evidence.
Keywords undermining  immediate justification
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Giacomo Melis (2014). Understanding Undermining Defeat. Philosophical Studies 170 (3):433-442.
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