David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Zygon 44 (3):613-624 (2009)
Recent advances in evolutionary biology and ethology suggest that humans are not the only species capable of empathy and possibly morality. These findings are of no little consequence for theology, given that a nonhuman animal as a free moral agent would beg the question if human beings are indeed uniquely created in God's image. I argue that apes and some other mammals have moral agency and that a traditional interpretation of the imago Dei is incorrectly equating specialness with exclusivity. By framing the problem in terms of metaphor, following the work of Paul Ricoeur and Sallie McFague, I propose that the concept of the imago Dei could be extended to accommodate moral species other than our own.
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References found in this work BETA
Marc Bekoff (2004). Wild Justice and Fair Play: Cooperation, Forgiveness, and Morality in Animals. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 19 (4):489-520.
F. B. M. de Waal (1996). Good Natured: The Origins of Right and Wrong in Humans and Other Animals. Harvard University Press.
Frans de Waal (2009). Primates and Philosophers: How Morality Evolved. Princeton University Press.
Jessica C. Flack & Frans Bm de Waal (2000). Any Animal Whatever. Darwinian Building Blocks of Morality in Monkeys and Apes. Journal of Consciousness Studies 7 (1-2):1-2.
Citations of this work BETA
Alan M. W. Porter (2013). Do Animals Have Souls? An Evolutionary Perspective. Heythrop Journal 54 (2):533-542.
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