David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Synthese (3):1-16 (2012)
Strategic games require reasoning about other people’s and one’s own beliefs or intentions. Although they have clear commonalities with psychological tests of theory of mind, they are not clearly related to theory of mind tests for children between 9 and 10 years of age “Flobbe et al. J Logic Language Inform 17(4):417–442 (2008)”. We studied children’s (5–12 years of age) individual differences in how they played a strategic game by analyzing the strategies that they applied in a zero, first, and second-order reasoning task. For the zero-order task, we found two subgroups with different accuracy levels. For the first-order task, subgroups of children applied different suboptimal strategies or an optimal strategy. For the second-order task only suboptimal strategies were present. Strategy use for all tasks was related to age. The 5- and 6-year old children were additionally tested on theory of mind understanding and executive functioning. Strategy-use in these children was related to working memory, but not to theory of mind after correction for age, verbal ability and general IQ
|Keywords||Strategic games Child development Reasoning Theory of mind Strategy analysis|
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References found in this work BETA
H. Wimmer (1983). Beliefs About Beliefs: Representation and Constraining Function of Wrong Beliefs in Young Children's Understanding of Deception. Cognition 13 (1):103-128.
Liesbeth Flobbe, Rineke Verbrugge, Petra Hendriks & Irene Krämer (2008). Children's Application of Theory of Mind in Reasoning and Language. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 17 (4):417-442.
Trey Hedden & Jun Zhang (2002). What Do You Think I Think You Think?: Strategic Reasoning in Matrix Games. Cognition 85 (1):1-36.
Citations of this work BETA
Ben Meijering, Niels A. Taatgen, Hedderik van Rijn & Rineke Verbrugge (2014). Modeling Inference of Mental States: As Simple as Possible, as Complex as Necessary. Interaction Studies 15 (3):455-477.
Sujata Ghosh, Ben Meijering & Rineke Verbrugge (2014). Strategic Reasoning: Building Cognitive Models From Logical Formulas. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 23 (1):1-29.
Ben Meijering, Niels A. Taatgen, Hedderik van Rijn & Rineke Verbrugge (2014). Modeling Inference of Mental States: As Simple as Possible, as Complex as Necessary. Interaction Studiesinteraction Studies Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems 15 (3):455-477.
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