David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (12):3-34 (2001)
(1) The induced colours led to perceptual grouping and pop-out, (2) a grapheme rendered invisible through ‘crowding’ or lateral masking induced synaesthetic colours — a form of blindsight — and (3) peripherally presented graphemes did not induce colours even when they were clearly visible. Taken collectively, these and other experiments prove conclusively that synaesthesia is a genuine percep- tual phenomenon, not an effect based on memory associations from childhood or on vague metaphorical speech. We identify different subtypes of number–colour synaesthesia and propose that they are caused by hyperconnectivity between col- our and number areas at different stages in processing; lower synaesthetes may have cross-wiring (or cross-activation) within the fusiform gyrus, whereas higher synaesthetes may have cross-activation in the angular gyrus. This hyperconnec- tivity might be caused by a genetic mutation that causes defective pruning of con- nections between brain maps. The mutation may further be expressed selectively (due to transcription factors) in the fusiform or angular gyri, and this may explain the existence of different forms of synaesthesia. If expressed very diffusely, there may be extensive cross-wiring between brain regions that represent abstract concepts, which would explain the link between creativity, metaphor and synaesthesia (and the higher incidence of synaesthesia among artists and poets). Also, hyperconnectivity between the sensory cortex and amygdala would explain the heightened aversion synaesthetes experience when seeing numbers printed in the ‘wrong’ colour. Lastly, kindling (induced hyperconnectivity in the temporal lobes of temporal lobe epilepsy [TLE] patients) may explain the purported higher incidence of synaesthesia in these patients. We conclude with a synaesthesia-based theory
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Mirko Farina (2013). Neither Touch nor Vision: Sensory Substitution as Artificial Synaesthesia? Biology and Philosophy 28 (4):639-655.
Anina N. Rich, John L. Bradshaw & Jason B. Mattingley (2005). A Systematic, Large-Scale Study of Synaesthesia: Implications for the Role of Early Experience in Lexical-Colour Associations. Cognition 98 (1):53-84.
Lynne C. Nygaard, Allison E. Cook & Laura L. Namy (2009). Sound to Meaning Correspondences Facilitate Word Learning. Cognition 112 (1):181-186.
Jamie Ward, Ryan Li, Shireen Salih & Noam Sagiv (2006). Varieties of Grapheme-Colour Synaesthesia: A New Theory of Phenomenological and Behavioural Differences. Consciousness and Cognition 16 (4):913-931.
Andrew J. Bremner, Serge Caparos, Jules Davidoff, Jan de Fockert, Karina J. Linnell & Charles Spence (2013). “Bouba” and “Kiki” in Namibia? A Remote Culture Make Similar Shape–Sound Matches, but Different Shape–Taste Matches to Westerners. Cognition 126 (2):165-172.
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