David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Cognitive Science 34 (8):1561-1573 (2010)
The present studies tested the hypothesis that strong assumptions about within-category homogeneity impede children’s recognition of the inductive value of diverse samples of evidence. In Study 1a, children (7-year-olds) and adults were randomly assigned to receive a prime emphasizing within-category variability, a prime emphasizing within-category similarities, or to not receive a prime. Only following the variability prime, children demonstrated a reliable preference for evaluating diverse over nondiverse samples to determine whether there is support for a category-wide generalization. Adults demonstrated a robust preference for diverse samples in all conditions. These effects extended beyond the specific categories included in the prime, as well as to multiple types of test questions. Study 1b demonstrated that priming variability leads children to select diverse samples only when doing so is informative for induction. Implications for conceptual development are discussed
|Keywords||Sampling Induction Variability Conceptual development Natural kinds Categories|
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References found in this work BETA
Susan A. Gelman & Ellen M. Markman (1986). Categories and Induction in Young Children. Cognition 23 (3):183-209.
Fei Xu & Stephanie Denison (2009). Statistical Inference and Sensitivity to Sampling in 11-Month-Old Infants. Cognition 112 (1):97-104.
Amanda C. Brandone & Susan A. Gelman (2009). Differences in Preschoolers’ and Adults’ Use of Generics About Novel Animals and Artifacts: A Window Onto a Conceptual Divide. Cognition 110 (1):1-22.
Marjorie Rhodes, Daniel Brickman & Susan A. Gelman (2008). Sample Diversity and Premise Typicality in Inductive Reasoning: Evidence for Developmental Change. Cognition 108 (2):543-556.
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