David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Modern semiotics is a branch of logics that formally defines symbol-based communication. In recent years, the semiotic classification of signs has been invoked to support the notion that symbols are uniquely human. Here we show that alarm-calls such as those used by African vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), logically satisfy the semiotic definition of symbol. We also show that the acquisition of vocal symbols in vervet monkeys can be successfully simulated by a computer program based on minimal semiotic and neurobiological constraints. The simulations indicate that learning depends on the tutor-predator ratio, and that apprentice-generated auditory mistakes in vocal symbol interpretation have little effect on the learning rates of apprentices (up to 80% of mistakes are tolerated). In contrast, just 10% of apprentice-generated visual mistakes in predator identification will prevent any vocal symbol to be correctly associated with a predator call in a stable manner. Tutor unreliability was also deleterious to vocal symbol learning: a mere 5% of “lying” tutors were able to completely disrupt symbol learning, invariably leading to the acquisition of incorrect associations by apprentices. Our investigation corroborates the existence of vocal symbols in a non-human species, and indicates that symbolic competence emerges spontaneously from classical associative learning mechanisms when the conditioned stimuli are self-generated, arbitrary and socially efficacious. We propose that more exclusive properties of human language, such as syntax, may derive from the evolution of higher-order domains for neural association, more removed from both the sensory input and the motor output, able to support the gradual complexification of grammatical categories into syntax.
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
|Through your library||Configure|
Similar books and articles
Jacques Janssen & Theo Verheggen (1997). The Double Center of Gravity in Durkheim's Symbol Theory: Bringing the Symbolism of the Body Back In. Sociological Theory 15 (3):294-306.
Susan Schneider (2009). The Nature of Symbols in the Language of Thought. Mind and Language 24 (5):523-553.
Jerome Frazee (1990). A New Symbolic Representation for the Algebra of Sets. History and Philosophy of Logic 11 (1):67-75.
Angelo Loula, Ricardo Gudwin, Charbel El-Hani & João Queiroz, The Emergence of Symbol-Based Communication in a Complex System of Artificial Creatures.
Stevan Harnad, Symbol Grounding is an Empirical Problem: Neural Nets Are Just a Candidate Component.
David Lumsden (2002). Crossing the Symbolic Threshold: A Critical Review of Terrence Deacon's the Symbolic Species. [REVIEW] Philosophical Psychology 15 (2):155 – 171.
Vincent C. Müller (2009). Symbol Grounding in Computational Systems: A Paradox of Intentions. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 19 (4):529-541.
Stevan Harnad (2002). Symbol Grounding and the Origin of Language. In Matthias Scheutz (ed.), Computationalism: New Directions. MIT Press.
Angelo Cangelosi (2001). Evolution of Communication and Language Using Signals, Symbols and Words. [Journal (on-Line/Unpaginated)].
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads2 ( #254,159 of 1,004,647 )
Recent downloads (6 months)0
How can I increase my downloads?