|Abstract||Complexity marks human behavior. We live in huge societies with an intricate division of labor. We employ a vast array of technologies in virtually every ecological system in practically every corner of the planet. The biological foundation of our behavior is a metabolically expensive brain whose full complexity remains largely beyond the ken of science. Moreover, human culture stands as the world’s most intricate system for transmitting behavior extra-genetically. It leads to rapid evolution and prodigious behavioral diversity across societies. The social sciences all take complex human behavior as their object of study. In spite of this commonality, the various disciplines go about their respective studies with little communication across disciplinary boundaries. The chasm between the social sciences and biology has been even harder to bridge than the chasms among the social sciences. In addition, in spite of the fact that mathematics has proven its value countless times as a language for confronting complexity, the social sciences, with the notable exception of economics, have developed as the least mathematical of the sciences. The quantitative skills of many social scientists do not extend beyond static linear statistical models, and the proliferation of postmodernism has further eroded the role of mathematics in the social sciences.|
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