Electronic identity in Finland: ID cards vs. bank IDs [Book Review]

Abstract
This chapter describes the introduction and diffusion of the Finnish Electronic Identity Card (FINEID card). FINEID establishes an electronic identity (eID), based on the civil registry and placed on an identity chip card issued by Finnish government to Finnish citizens and permanent residents from age 18 and older. It is a non-mandatory electronic identity card introduced in 1999 in order to replace the older citizen ID card. It serves as a travel document and is intended to facilitate access to eGovernment services as well as offering a possibility to sign electronically. Therefore the chip contains two certificates: one for authentication purposes, and one for qualified signatures. The eID function had to compete with the already existing PIN/TAN based TUPAS standard for online authentication for eBanking, eCommerce and eGovernment applications, and has lost this battle by reaching less than one percent of all online authentications. The history, actor constellation, time line and barriers will be described and a few communalities and differences to other countries under study in this special issue will be highlighted.
Keywords Bank ID  eID card  PIN/TAN authentication  Population register center  Social security identifyer number  eGovernment  Electronic identity cards  Electronic passports  European interoperability of electronic identity cards  Finnish electronic identity  Identity management for citizens  Legal framework for electronic identities  Unique identifiers
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