Constant factors and hedgeless Hedges: On heuristics and biases in biological research

Philosophy of Science 70 (5):975-988 (2003)
How does a complex organism develop from a relatively simple, homogeneous mass? The usual answer is: through the (context‐dependent) execution of species‐specific genetic instructions specifying the development of that organism. Commentators are sometimes skeptical of this usual answer, but of course not all commentators, and not always for the same reasons. Here I attempt to lay bare the logical structure of the usual answer through an extended analysis of the heuristics and methodological principles at play in the exploration and explanation of development—and also to show a critical ambiguity that renders the usual answer suspect.
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DOI 10.1086/377382
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Jason Scott Robert (2008). The Comparative Biology of Human Nature. Philosophical Psychology 21 (3):425 – 436.

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