One or two types of death? Attitudes of health professionals towards brain death and donation after circulatory death in three countries
David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (3):457-467 (2013)
This study examined health professionals’ (HPs) experience, beliefs and attitudes towards brain death (BD) and two types of donation after circulatory death (DCD)—controlled and uncontrolled DCD. Five hundred and eighty-seven HPs likely to be involved in the process of organ procurement were interviewed in 14 hospitals with transplant programs in France, Spain and the US. Three potential donation scenarios—BD, uncontrolled DCD and controlled DCD—were presented to study subjects during individual face-to-face interviews. Our study has two main findings: (1) In the context of organ procurement, HPs believe that BD is a more reliable standard for determining death than circulatory death, and (2) While the vast majority of HPs consider it morally acceptable to retrieve organs from brain-dead donors, retrieving organs from DCD patients is much more controversial. We offer the following possible explanations. DCD introduces new conditions that deviate from standard medical practice, allow procurement of organs when donors’ loss of circulatory function could be reversed, and raises questions about “death” as a unified concept. Our results suggest that, for many HPs, these concerns seem related in part to the fact that a rigorous brain examination is neither clinically performed nor legally required in DCD. Their discomfort could also come from a belief that irreversible loss of circulatory function has not been adequately demonstrated. If DCD protocols are to achieve their full potential for increasing organ supply, the sources of HPs’ discomfort must be further identified and addressed
|Keywords||Attitude to death Tissue and organ procurement Ethics Attitude of health personnel Donation after circulatory death Brain death France Spain United States|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
Robert M. Arnold & Stuart J. Youngner (1993). The Dead Donor Rule: Should We Stretch It, Bend It, or Abandon It? Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 3 (2):263-278.
James L. Bernat, Charles M. Culver & Bernard Gert (1982). Defining Death in Theory and Practice. Hastings Center Report 12 (1):5-9.
Pascal Borry, Walter van Reusel, Leo Roels & Paul Schotsmans (2008). Donation After Uncontrolled Cardiac Death (uDCD): A Review of the Debate From a European Perspective. [REVIEW] Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (4):752-759.
Michael A. DeVita, James V. Snyder & Ake Grenvik (1993). History of Organ Donation by Patients with Cardiac Death. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 3 (2):113-129.
Joel Feinberg (1985). The Mistreatment of Dead Bodies. Hastings Center Report 15 (1):31-37.
Citations of this work BETA
No citations found.
Similar books and articles
J. L. Bernat (2010). How the Distinction Between "Irreversible" and "Permanent" Illuminates Circulatory-Respiratory Death Determination. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (3):242-255.
David Rodríguez-Arias, Maxwell J. Smith & Neil M. Lazar (2011). Donation After Circulatory Death: Burying the Dead Donor Rule. American Journal of Bioethics 11 (8):36-43.
Paul E. Morrissey (2012). The Case for Kidney Donation Before End-of-Life Care. American Journal of Bioethics 12 (6):1-8.
Ari Joffe, Joe Carcillo, Natalie Anton, Allan deCaen, Yong Han, Michael Bell, Frank Maffei, John Sullivan, James Thomas & Gonzalo Garcia-Guerra (2011). Donation After Cardiocirculatory Death: A Call for a Moratorium Pending Full Public Disclosure and Fully Informed Consent. [REVIEW] Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 6 (1):17-.
Mike Collins (2010). Reevaluating the Dead Donor Rule. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (2):1-26.
Mohamed Y. Rady & Joseph L. Verheijde (2013). Brain-Dead Patients Are Not Cadavers: The Need to Revise the Definition of Death in Muslim Communities. [REVIEW] HEC Forum 25 (1):25-45.
Laura A. Siminoff, Christopher Burant & Stuart J. Youngner (2004). Death and Organ Procurement: Public Beliefs and Attitudes. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 14 (3):217-234.
Tracy C. Schmidt (2004). The Ohio Study in Light of National Data and Clinical Experience. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 14 (3):235-240.
Mary Jiang Bresnahan & Kevin Mahler (2010). Ethical Debate Over Organ Donation in the Context of Brain Death. Bioethics 24 (2):54-60.
Ari Joffe (2010). Are Recent Defences of the Brain Death Concept Adequate? Bioethics 24 (2):47-53.
Mike Nair-Collins (2010). Death, Brain Death, and the Limits of Science: Why the Whole-Brain Concept of Death Is a Flawed Public Policy. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (3):667-683.
R. M. Veatch (2010). Transplanting Hearts After Death Measured by Cardiac Criteria: The Challenge to the Dead Donor Rule. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (3):313-329.
Megan Crowley-Matoka & Robert M. Arnold (2004). The Dead Donor Rule: How Much Does the Public Care ... And How Much Should. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 14 (3):319-332.
Franklin G. Miller & Robert Truog (2011). Death, Dying, and Organ Donation: Reconstructing Medical Ethics at the End of Life. Oxford University Press.
Added to index2011-12-04
Total downloads10 ( #145,939 of 1,100,983 )
Recent downloads (6 months)6 ( #44,199 of 1,100,983 )
How can I increase my downloads?