David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa
Jack Alan Reynolds
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British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (4):693 - 712 (2004)
We argue that a fashionable interpretation of the theory of natural selection as a claim exclusively about populations is mistaken. The interpretation rests on adopting an analysis of fitness as a probabilistic propensity which cannot be substantiated, draws parallels with thermodynamics which are without foundations, and fails to do justice to the fundamental distinction between drift and selection. This distinction requires a notion of fitness as a pairwise comparison between individuals taken two at a time, and so vitiates the interpretation of the theory as one about populations exclusively
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Jean Gayon (2011). Economic Natural Selection: What Concept of Selection? Biological Theory 6 (4):320-325.
Joshua Filler (2009). Newtonian Forces and Evolutionary Biology: A Problem and Solution for Extending the Force Interpretation. Philosophy of Science 76 (5):774-783.
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