David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Biology and Philosophy 23 (2):205-215 (2008)
Views on the evolution of altruism based upon multilevel selection on structured populations pay little attention to the difference between fortuitous and deliberate processes leading to assortative grouping. Altruism may evolve when assortative grouping is fortuitously produced by forces external to the organism. But when it is deliberately produced by the same proximate mechanism that controls altruistic responses, as in humans, exploitation of altruists by selfish individuals is unlikely and altruism evolves as an individually advantageous trait. Groups formed with altruists of this sort are special, because they are not affected by subversion from within. A synergistic process where altruism is selected both at the individual and at the group level can take place.
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References found in this work BETA
Elliott Sober & David Sloan Wilson (1998). Unto Others: The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior. Harvard University Press.
Herb Gintis, Samuel Bowles, Robert Boyd & Fehr & Ernst (2009). Explaining Altruistic Behaviour in Humans. In Robin Dunbar & Louise Barrett (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology. OUP Oxford
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Ernst Fehr & Urs Fischbacher (2004). Social Norms and Human Cooperation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (4):185-190.
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