David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Metaphilosophy 41 (3):255-278 (2010)
Abstract: Knowledge requires more than mere true belief, and we also tend to think it is more valuable. I explain the added value that knowledge contributes if its extra ingredient beyond true belief is tracking . I show that the tracking conditions are the unique conditions on knowledge that achieve for those who fulfill them a strict Nash Equilibrium and an Evolutionarily Stable Strategy in what I call the True Belief Game. The added value of these properties, intuitively, includes preparedness and an expectation of survival advantage. On this view knowledge is valuable not because knowledge persists but because it makes the bearer more likely to maintain an appropriate belief state—possibly nonbelief—through time and changing circumstances. When Socrates concluded that knowledge of the road to Larissa was no more valuable than true belief for the purpose of getting to Larissa, he did not take into account that one might want to be prepared for a possible meeting with a misleading sophist along the way, or for the possibility of road work.
|Keywords||evolutionary stability swamping problem value problem Nash Equilibrium knowledge ESS tracking|
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References found in this work BETA
Luciano Floridi (2005). Consciousness, Agents and the Knowledge Game. Minds and Machines 15 (3):415-444.
Alvin Goldman (1979). ``What is Justified Belief?". In George Pappas (ed.), Justification and Knowledge. Boston: D. Reidel 1-25.
Jonathan L. Kvanvig (2003). The Value of Knowledge and the Pursuit of Understanding. Cambridge University Press.
David Lewis (1969). Convention: A Philosophical Study. Harvard University Press.
Sherrilyn Roush (2005). Tracking Truth: Knowledge, Evidence, and Science. Oxford University Press.
Citations of this work BETA
Erik J. Olsson (2011). The Value of Knowledge. Philosophy Compass 6 (12):874-883.
Julien Dutant (2013). In Defence of Swamping. Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 2 (4):357-366.
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