David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 21 (2):153-181 (2008)
This paper discusses the ethical and regulatory issues raised by “intragenics” – organisms that have been genetically modified using gene technologies, but that do not contain DNA from another species. Considering the rapid development of knowledge about gene regulation and genomics, we anticipate rapid advances in intragenic methods. Of regulatory systems developed to govern genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in North America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand, the Australian system stands out in explicitly excluding intragenics from regulation. European systems are also under pressure to exclude intragenics from regulation. We evaluate recent arguments that intragenics are safer and more morally acceptable than transgenic organisms, and more acceptable to the public, which might be thought to justify a lower standard of regulation. We argue that the exemption of intragenics from regulation is not justified, and that there may be significant environmental risks associated with them. We conclude that intragenics should be subject to the same standard of regulation as other GMOs.
|Keywords||consumers environment ethics genetically modified organisms intragenics nature regulation safety|
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References found in this work BETA
Christoph Baumgartner (2006). Exclusion by Inclusion? On Difficulties with Regard to an Effective Ethical Assessment of Patenting in the Field of Agricultural Bio-Technology. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 19 (6):521-539.
Donald Bruce (2002). Finding a Balance Over Precaution. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 15 (1):7-16.
Lawrence Busch (2002). The Homiletics of Risk. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 15 (1):17-29.
Rogeer Hoedemaekers (2001). Commercialization, Patents and Moral Assessment of Biotechnology Products. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 26 (3):273 – 284.
Kathrine Hauge Madsen, Preben Bach Holm, Jesper Lassen & Peter Sandøe (2002). Ranking Genetically Modified Plants According to Familiarity. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 15 (3):267-278.
Citations of this work BETA
Henrik Mielby, Peter Sandøe & Jesper Lassen (2013). Multiple Aspects of Unnaturalness: Are Cisgenic Crops Perceived as Being More Natural and More Acceptable Than Transgenic Crops? [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 30 (3):471-480.
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