David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Philosophical Review 121 (3):359-406 (2012)
According to the orthodox account developed by Kaplan, indexicals like I, you, and now invariably refer to elements of the context of speech. This essay argues that the orthodoxy is wrong. I, you, and the like are shifted by certain modal operators and hence can fail to refer to elements of the context, for example, I can fail to refer to the speaker. More precisely, indexicals are syntactically akin to logical variables. They can be free, in which case they work, roughly, on the Kaplan model. But they can also be bound: this happens, in a systematic fashion, when they are in the scope of epistemic modals or attitude verbs. The new view has two interesting philosophical consequences. First, it vindicates a broadly Fregean perspective on referential expressions, essentially refuting the idea that indexicals are rigid designators. Second, it suggests a new picture of the interaction between context and linguistic meaning: compositional semantics does not need to look at the context and hence has no need for a context parameter.
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
Paolo Santorio (2013). Descriptions as Variables. Philosophical Studies 164 (1):41-59.
James R. Shaw (2015). De Re Belief and Cumming's Puzzle. Analytic Philosophy 56 (1):45-74.
Kjell Johan Sæbø (2015). Lessons From Descriptive Indexicals. Mind 124 (496):1111-1161.
Similar books and articles
K. Romdenh-Romluc (2006). I. Philosophical Studies 128 (2):257 - 283.
Allyson Mount (2008). The Impurity of “Pure” Indexicals. Philosophical Studies 138 (2):193 - 209.
Philippe Schlenker (2003). A Plea for Monsters. Linguistics and Philosophy 26 (1):29-120.
Erich Rast (2006). Reference and Indexicality. Dissertation, Roskilde University
Maria Bittner (2014). Perspectival Discourse Referents for Indexicals. In Hannah Greene (ed.), SULA 7: Proceedings of the Seventh Meeting on the Semantics of Under-represented Languages in the Americas (Cornell University, May 4–6, 2012). Createspace 1–22.
Berit Brogaard (2012). Context and Content: Pragmatics in Two-Dimensional Semantics. In Keith Allan & Kasia Jaszczolt (eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Pragmatics. Cambridge University Press
John Perry (1998). Indexicals, Contexts and Unarticulated Constituents. In Atocha Aliseda-Llera, Rob J. Van Glabbeek & Dag Westerståhl (eds.), Proceedings of the 1995 CSLI-Armsterdam Logic, Language and Computation Conference. CSLI Publications
Ben Caplan (2003). Putting Things in Contexts. Philosophical Review 112 (2):191-214.
David Israel & John Perry (1996). Where Monsters Dwell. In Jerry Seligman & Dag Westerståhl (eds.), Logic, Language and Computation. Csli Publications, Stanford 1--303.
Daniel Asher Krasner (2006). Smith on Indexicals. Synthese 153 (1):49 - 67.
Added to index2012-07-26
Total downloads50 ( #84,935 of 1,907,057 )
Recent downloads (6 months)2 ( #345,104 of 1,907,057 )
How can I increase my downloads?