David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Journal of Philosophical Logic 40 (5):563-582 (2011)
It is often remarked that Indian logic (IL) has no conception of necessity. But what kind of necessity is absent in this system? Logical necessity is presumably absent: the structure of the logical argument in IL is often given as a reason for this claim. However even a cursory understanding of IL illustrates an abiding attempt to formulate the idea of necessity. In Dharmakīrti's classification of inferences, one can detect the formal process of entailment in the inferences arising from class inclusion. In Western philosophy, Leibniz's invocation of 'contingent necessity' as distinguished from the 'necessary necessity' is part of a tradition that finds value in the idea of contingent necessity. In contemporary philosophy, this has been championed by Armstrong, specifically in the context of understanding the necessity inherent in scientific laws. In IL, the analysis of 'invariable concomitance' (vyāpti) is of crucial importance and its definitions are very complex. This paper argues how vyāpti can be understood in terms of contingent necessity and also how the complex definitions can be interpreted as an attempt to define contingent necessity in terms of 'logical' necessity.
|Keywords||Necessity Analyticity Vyāpti Pervasion Invariable concomitance Everpresent properties Possible worlds Scientific law Absence Limitors|
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References found in this work BETA
D. M. Armstrong (1983). What is a Law of Nature? Cambridge University Press.
Sibajiban Bhattacharyya (1987). Doubt, Belief, and Knowledge. Indian Council of Philosophical Research in Association with Allied Publishers.
Sibajiban Bhattacharyya (1974). Some Features of Navya-Nyāya Logic. Philosophy East and West 24 (3):329-342.
Kisor Kumar Chakrabarti (1976). Some Comparisons Between Frege's Logic and Navya-Nyaya Logic. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 36 (4):554-563.
Kisor Kumar Chakrabarti (1987). The Svabhāvahetu in Dharmakīrti's Logic. Philosophy East and West 37 (4):392-401.
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