Identity

Abstract
Identity. From very early days of quantum theory it was recognized that quanta were statistically strange (see !Bose-Einstein statistics). Suspicion fell on the identity of quanta, of how they are to be counted [1], [2]. It was not until Dirac’s [1902-1984] work of 1926 (and his discovery of !Fermi-Dirac statistics [3]) that the nature of the novelty was clear: the quantum state of exactly similar particles of the same mass, charge, and spin must be symmetrized, yielding states either symmetric or antisymmetric under permutations. This is the symmetry postulate (SP)
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