David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Philosophical Psychology 20 (5):579 – 593 (2007)
Clear definitions of alienation and solidarity are needed as a step toward an explicit theory of social integration. The idea of alienation has played a key role in the development of sociology, but it's meaning has never been clear. Both theories and empirical studies confound relational-dispositional, cognitive-emotional and/or interpersonal-societal components. This essay proposes definitions that follow from the work of Erving Goffman and others. Goffman's idea of "co-presence" implies a model of solidarity as mutual awareness to the point of merging consciousness. It appears that this concept of solidarity could be the main component of shared context, consensus, genuine love and social facts. Two empirical approaches are described, one with moment by moment analysis of dialogue, the other using sample surveys. With the use of mathematical notation, the survey method might be used to analyze social facts. The model could also form the basis for an explicit and testable theory of social integration.
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References found in this work BETA
Martin Buber (1970). I and Thou. New York,Scribner.
H. Clark & C. Marshall (1981). Definite Knowledge and Mutual Knowledge. In A. Joshi, Bruce H. Weber & Ivan A. Sag (eds.), Elements of Discourse Understanding. Cambridge University Press
Herbert H. Clark & Catherine R. Marshall (1981). Definite Reference and Mutual Knowledge In Aravind K. Joshi, Bonnie L. Webber, and Ivan A. Sag, Editors. In A. Joshi, Bruce H. Weber & Ivan A. Sag (eds.), Elements of Discourse Understanding. Cambridge University Press
Norbert Elias (2012). What is Sociology? University College Dublin Press.
G. H. Mead (forthcoming). Mind, Self and Society. Chicago, Il.
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