David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Consciousness and Cognition 7 (4):634-646 (1998)
Even though various investigations found a preponderance of negative emotions in dreams, the conclusion that human dream life is, in general, negatively toned is limited by several methodological issues. The present study made use of three different approaches to measure dream emotions: dream intensity rated by the dreamer, intensity rated by a judge, and scoring of explicitly mentioned emotions (Hall & Van de Castle, 1966). Results indicate that only in the case of external raters' estimates do negative emotions outweigh the positive ones; but in the case of self-ratings (i.e., those made by the dreamer himself/herself), the ratio was balanced. Analyses showed that this is mainly due to the underestimation of positive emotions in the external ratings. Additionally, a positive correlation was found between the intensity of dream emotions and dream recall frequency, whereas gender differences were nonsignificant as regards the emotional tone of diary dreams.
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Michael Schredl (2011). Dream Research in Schizophrenia: Methodological Issues and a Dimensional Approach. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1036-1041.
Marco Zanasi, Fabrizio Calisti, Giorgio di Lorenzo, Giulia Valerio & Alberto Siracusano (2011). Oneiric Activity in Schizophrenia: Textual Analysis of Dream Reports. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):337-348.
Kelly Bulkeley (2009). Seeking Patterns in Dream Content: A Systematic Approach to Word Searches. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (4):905-916.
Mark Blagrove, Josie Henley-Einion, Amanda Barnett, Darren Edwards & C. Heidi Seage (2011). A Replication of the 5–7day Dream-Lag Effect with Comparison of Dreams to Future Events as Control for Baseline Matching. [REVIEW] Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):384-391.
Katja Valli, Thea Strandholm, Lauri Sillanmäki & Antti Revonsuo (2008). Dreams Are More Negative Than Real Life: Implications for the Function of Dreaming. Cognition and Emotion 22 (5):833-861.
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