David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Consciousness and Cognition 7 (4):634-646 (1998)
Even though various investigations found a preponderance of negative emotions in dreams, the conclusion that human dream life is, in general, negatively toned is limited by several methodological issues. The present study made use of three different approaches to measure dream emotions: dream intensity rated by the dreamer, intensity rated by a judge, and scoring of explicitly mentioned emotions (Hall & Van de Castle, 1966). Results indicate that only in the case of external raters' estimates do negative emotions outweigh the positive ones; but in the case of self-ratings (i.e., those made by the dreamer himself/herself), the ratio was balanced. Analyses showed that this is mainly due to the underestimation of positive emotions in the external ratings. Additionally, a positive correlation was found between the intensity of dream emotions and dream recall frequency, whereas gender differences were nonsignificant as regards the emotional tone of diary dreams.
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References found in this work BETA
Jane M. Merritt, Robert Stickgold, Edward Pace-Schott, Julie Williams & J. Allan Hobson (1994). Emotion Profiles in the Dreams of Men and Women. Consciousness and Cognition 3 (1):46-60.
David Foulkes, Brenda Sullivan, Nancy H. Kerr & Lisa Brown (1988). Appropriateness of Dream Feelings to Dreamed Situations. Cognition and Emotion 2 (1):29-39.
Citations of this work BETA
Josie E. Malinowski & Caroline L. Horton (2015). Metaphor and Hyperassociativity: The Imagination Mechanisms Behind Emotion Assimilation in Sleep and Dreaming. Frontiers in Psychology 6.
Mark Blagrove, Josie Henley-Einion, Amanda Barnett, Darren Edwards & C. Heidi Seage (2011). A Replication of the 5–7day Dream-Lag Effect with Comparison of Dreams to Future Events as Control for Baseline Matching. [REVIEW] Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):384-391.
K. Valli, A. Revonsuo, O. Palkas, K. Ismail, K. Ali & R. Punamaki (2005). The Threat Simulation Theory of the Evolutionary Function of Dreaming: Evidence From Dreams of Traumatized Children. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (1):188-218.
Kelly Bulkeley (2009). Seeking Patterns in Dream Content: A Systematic Approach to Word Searches. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (4):905-916.
J. A. Cheyne, S. D. Rueffer & I. R. Newby-Clark (1999). Hypnagogic and Hypnopompic Hallucinations During Sleep Paralysis: Neurological and Cultural Construction of the Night-Mare. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (3):319-337.
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